Membrane lipid composition is a major determinant of protein organisation in the cell membrane. In a previous study, we reported that depletion of membrane cholesterol by methyl-fÒ-cyclodextrin (MCD) causes a marked increase in Kv1.5-current (Ikur) in neonatal cardiac myocytes. Here, we examined the mechanisms of the cholesterol effects on potassium current in adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC). GFP-tagged Kv1.5 channels were transduced in ARC using adenoviral vectors and patch clamp experiments were performed to record whole-cell currents and single channel activity. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique was used to investigate GFP-Kv1.5 channels mobility; 3D-epifluorescence microscopy was conducted to follow Kv1.5 channels trafficking.
In both freshly isolated and cultured ARC over-expressing GFP-Kv1.5 channels, MCD induced a rapid (< 7min) increase in Ikur but not Ito. On the contrary, incubation with the cholesterol donor LDL reduced Ikur. Single channel experiments revealed that MCD application caused a progressive and drastic increase of the number of active channels. Moreover, FRAP experiments showed that MCD reduced both mobility and recovery of GFP-Kv1.5. Several steps of the trafficking process of ion channels were studied. Blocking SNARE-mediated exocytosis with N-ethylmaleimide prevented the MCD-effect on Ikur. While disruption of Golgi complex/secretion pathway with brefeldine-A had no effect, manipulation of GTP-ases activity with GTP-f×-S suppressed the MCD effect. Transfection with a dominant negative (DN) form of Rab11 effect but not Rab4 DN prevented the MCD. Moreover, Kv1.5 channels co-immunoprecipitated with Rab11 which is stringly expressed in myocardium and ARC (qPCR and western blot). Finally, 3D-microscopy evidenced that Kv1.5 channels association with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes observed in control condition disappeared following cholesterol depletion.
Lowering cholesterol rapidly induces the insertion of Kv1.5 channels by a process that involves vesicle fusion and trafficking processes, particularly the Rab11-associated slow recycling pathway. Given the role of Kv1.5 channel in normal and pathological atrial electrical properties, this study opens news perspectives for therapeutic modulation of cardiac myocytes excitability.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.