Although the development of antimicrobial drugs has advanced rapidly in the past several years, such agents act against only certain groups of microbes and are associated with increasing rates of resistance. These limitations of treatment force physicians to continue to rely on prevention, which is more effective and cost-effective than therapy. From the use of the smallpox vaccine by Jenner in the 1700s to the current concerns about biologic warfare, the technology for vaccine development has seen numerous advances. The currently available vaccines for viral illnesses include Dryvax for smallpox; the combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A; plasma-derived vaccine for hepatitis B; and the live attenuated Oka strain vaccine for varicella zoster. Vaccines available against bacterial illnesses include those for anthrax, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Currently in development for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes are vaccines for HIV, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus. Other vaccines being investigated for prevention are those for cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, hepatitis C, and dengue fever, among many others. Fungal and protozoan diseases are also subjects of vaccine research. Among immunoglobulins approved for prophylactic and therapeutic use are those against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A and B, measles, rabies, and tetanus. With this progress, it is hoped that effective vaccines soon will be developed for many more infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations.
At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the current and experimental vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Abbreviations : AVA, CDC, CRM197, DTaP, DTP, HbOC, HBsAg, Hib, HPV, HSV, IVIG, LACK, MMR, OspA, OspC, PA, PGA, PRP, PRP-D, PRP-OMP, rOspA, SSPE, VIG, VLP
| Funding sources: None.
Disclosure: Dr Tyring has conducted research on vaccines for vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus, human papillomaviruses, and HIV with grants from Merck, Chiron, GlaxoSmithKline, MedImmune, and VaxGen to the University of Texas Medical Branch and the Center for Clinical Studies.