Even if the Greeks probably anticipated rather than discovered the extraordinary regenerative capacity of the liver with the Prometheus myth, this phenomenon still fascinates scientists nowadays with the same enthusiasm. There are good reasons to decipher this process other than to find an answer to our fantasy of immortality: it could indeed help patients needing large liver resections or living-donor liver transplantation, it could increase our understanding of liver pathology and finally it could enable novel cell-therapy approaches. For decades, most of our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in liver regeneration came from the classic two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) model. In this scenario, hepatocytes play the leading role, which raises the question of the simple existence of a stem cell population. Recently however, hepatic progenitor cells come again under the limelight, seeming to play a role in liver physiology and in various liver diseases such as steatosis or cirrhosis. Excellent reviews have recently addressed liver regeneration. Our goal is therefore to focus on recent improvements in the field, highlighting data mostly published in the last two years in order to draw a putative picture of what the future research axes on liver regeneration might look like.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.