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Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease mostly affecting the exocrine glands. A large number of autoantibodies have been detected in the serum of patients with pSS. Among them, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies are the most common; they serve as disease markers and are involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal lupus syndrome (NLS). Other autoantibodies are associated with significant clinical phenotypes, such as cryoglobulins with development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, anti-centromere antibodies with Raynaud’s phenomenon and anti-mitochondrial antibodies with liver pathology. As a result, pSS patients can be schematically categorized in subgroups according to their serological profile. Although the clinical utility of these autoantibodies is appreciated, little is known about the mechanisms related to their production and the regulation of the autoimmune response. In the present review, the clinical subsets of patients with pSS related to different autoantibodies as well as the regulating mechanisms of their production with special emphasis on idiotypic/anti-idiotypic network are discussed.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.