Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrom type 1 (PAS-1) or Autoimmune PolyEndocrinopathy Candidiasis-Ectodermal-Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare recessive autosomal disease related to Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations. AIRE is mainly implicated in central and peripheric immune tolerance. Diagnosis was classically based on presence of at least two out of three “majors” criterions of Whitaker’s triad (candidiasis, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency). Presence of one criterion was sufficient when a sibling was previously diagnosed. However, some atypic or poorly symptomatic variants do not correspond to these criterions. As a matter of fact, digestive (malabsorption, pernicious anemia, hepatitis), cutaneous (alopecia, vitiligo, enamel dysplasia) or ophtalmological (keratitis) components could prevail. In these cases, diagnosis could be made by molecular genetics. Prognosis is influenced by genetic (AIRE mutations, HLA), hormonal and environmental (infections) factors. Potentially letal components (hepatitis and severe malabsorption) could be treated by immunosuppressors. Candidiasis and other infections should be carefully screened and treated before beginning those therapies, in order to avoid severe systemic infections.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.