Three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus are usually treated surgically. Open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) is the method of choice in younger patients. Anatomic reduction of the tuberosities is crucial to ensure that, in the event of poorly tolerated avascular necrosis of the humeral head, hemiarthroplasty can be performed under optimal conditions. Suboptimal outcomes may occur after ORIF, as less-than-perfect reduction and fixation is poorly tolerated at the shoulder. Preoperative computed tomography must be performed routinely to analyse fragment displacement and comminution, classify the fracture, assess humeral head vitality, and evaluate the mechanical properties of the underlying bone. Fracture reduction relies on principles that are shared by the various available techniques. Reduction of each fragment should be assessed separately. Reduction of the humeral head to the shaft should be performed before reduction of the tuberosities. The fixation technique should ensure stability of the anatomic reduction, with secure fixation of the tuberosities and a minimal risk of material migration into the joint. Here, we provide a detailed discussion of the various techniques, with their advantages and drawbacks, to help surgeons select the method that is most appropriate to each individual patient.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Proximal humerus, Three-part fracture, Four-part fracture, Surgical treatment, ORIF