The epidermal nevus syndromes represent a group of distinct disorders that can be distinguished by the type of associated epidermal nevus and by the criterion of presence or absence of heritability. Well defined syndromes characterized by organoid epidermal nevi include Schimmelpenning syndrome, phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica, nevus comedonicus syndrome, angora hair nevus syndrome, and Becker nevus syndrome. The molecular basis of these disorders has so far not been identified. By contrast, the group of syndromes characterized by keratinocytic nevi comprises three phenotypes with a known molecular etiology in the form of CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, type 2 segmental Cowden disease, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 epidermal nevus syndrome (García-Hafner-Happle syndrome), whereas Proteus syndrome is still of unknown origin. From this overview, it is clear that a specific type of these disorders cannot be classified by the name “epidermal nevus syndrome” nor by the terms “organoid nevus syndrome” or “keratinocytic nevus syndrome.”
After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to distinguish nine different epidermal nevus syndromes by their characteristic features, understand the practical significance of avoiding terms like “epidermal nevus syndrome” or “keratinocytic nevus syndrome” to define any specific entity within this group of disorders, and differentiate between nonhereditary traits and those bearing a genetic risk because of either Mendelian or non-Mendelian inheritance.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Key words : functional mosaicism of an X-linked dominant, male-lethal mutation, keratinocytic nevi, mosaicism of autosomal lethal mutations, organiod nevi, paradominant inheritance, type 2 segmental Cowden disease
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