We describe the main tools for MR assessment of the response of rectal cancer tumors after chemotherapy, before surgery. In locally advanced cases of rectal and lower rectal cancer, MR is useful in allowing the treatment strategy to be adjusted, enabling conservative surgery to be performed if the patient responds well. The different types of response (fibrous, desmoplastic and colloid), their appearances and difficulties in MR interpretation are described. We describe the features and performance of MR after neoadjuvant therapy for T and N staging, assessment of circumferential resection margin and diffusion weighted imaging. Quantitative (change in tumor volume) and qualitative (grade of tumor response) MR assessment can distinguish good responders from poor responders.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Rectum, MR, Cancer, Response, Neoadjuvant therapy