Although a steady increase in contraceptive use has been observed over the past decades, the contraceptive needs of a significant percent of couples have not yet been met. Emerging scientific opportunities may shape the future scientific agenda in reproductive research in the context of new and advanced technologies for the development of improved contraceptives. While long-acting methods, such as implants and IUDs seem preferable for women with compliance issues, mid-acting user-controlled methods such as 1-year vaginal rings proved effective and well accepted by women. Transdermal gels or sprays used daily have shown high acceptability as the methods can be used privately. Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) block ovulation and induce amenorrhea. In the future, contraceptives may be combined with other medicinal agents to provide dual protection against both pregnancy and another preventable condition, such as sexually transmitted infections. Also, the neuroprotective effects of progesterone and similar molecules are new areas of research supporting the development of novel contraceptives with added health benefits. Emerging areas of research, such as genomics and proteomics created a new scientific opportunity. New areas of basic research include studies on genes, proteins and enzymes involved in the reproductive system and permitted the discovery of new targets of the reproductive tract. Developing molecules to antagonize the function of one promising target may lead to a very specific contraceptive with possibly less side effects than hormonal contraceptives. Non-hormonal methods in women target meiosis as well as genes involved in follicular rupture and ovulation. These new approaches will ensure future development of non-hormonal contraceptives.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.