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The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects. The labrum is often involved in shoulder pathology, by single trauma or, more often, repeated microtrauma. It seems logical to classify and to describe tears according to two criteria: the sector involved, and associated pain or instability. In the superior labrum, SLAP lesions are the most frequent. These combine labral lesion and lesion of the proximal insertion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The most frequent form is SLAP II. They may be associated with instability or not. In the antero-inferior and postero-inferior labrum, lesions are mainly due to instability, particularly Bankart lesions (capsulolabral avulsion) anteriorly and Kim's lesion posteriorly. Circumferential labral lesions may be found in unstable shoulder. Finally, postero-superior lesions involve Walch's internal impingement: repeated contact between the deep surface of the cuff and the labrum, which takes on a degenerative aspect, with a kissing lesion of the cuff. There is no general rule for management: some labral lesions are resected and others fixed. The cause (which is usually shoulder instability), however, needs to be assessed and treated.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Labrum, Instability, SLAP, Bankart, Internal impingement