The epidemiology and diagnosis of osteoarticular infections (OAI) have changed considerably in recent years, partly due to the development of molecular biology. Kingella kingae is now recognized as the most frequent pathogen in children under 4 years of age, while methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has been increasingly reported. Although the clinical course of OAI is mostly benign, with shorter antibiotic regimens and simplified treatments, serious functional impairments and life-threatening complications can still occur, especially in case of delayed diagnosis or infection caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of SA. Newborns and patients with sickle cell disease have greater risk of orthopaedic sequelae, which need to be detected and managed early. The main sequelae of osteomyelitis are angular limb deformity, due to partial growth arrest, and lower limb discrepancy. Therapeutic options are guided by the patient's age and predictions at maturity. The main complications of septic arthritis are joint stiffness and osteonecrosis. The procedures to consider are arthrodesis, joint reconstruction in immature children, and arthroplasty at the end of growth.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Osteoarticular infection, Pediatrics, Sequelae