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Archives of cardiovascular diseases
Volume 108, n° 12
pages 650-660 (décembre 2015)
Doi : 10.1016/j.acvd.2015.07.002
Received : 9 April 2015 ;  accepted : 31 July 2015
Stenting in paediatric and adult congenital heart diseases: A French multicentre study in the current era
Utilisation du stent dans le cathétérisme des cardiopathies congénitales de l’enfant et de l’adulte : une étude française multicentrique de la pratique actuelle

Sebastien Hascoët a, b, c, d, e, , Zakaria Jalal a, f, Alban Baruteau a, f, g, Lucia Mauri a, h, Aurélie Chalard a, i, Ivan Bouzguenda a, j, Jean-François Piéchaud a, j, Jean-Benoit Thambo a, f, Bruno Lefort a, k, Patrice Guérin a, l, Lauriane Le Gloan a, l, Philippe Acar a, b, Ali Houeijeh a, m, François Godart a, m, Alain Fraisse a, h, n
a Groupe de cathétérisme interventionnel pédiatrique et congénitale/filiale de cardiologie pédiatrique et congénitale de la société française de cardiologie, France 
b Paediatric and congenital cardiology, Children's Hospital, Paul-Sabatier University, M3C CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse, France 
c Inserm UMR 1048, équipe 8 – I2MC – institut des maladies métaboliques et cardiovasculaires, Paul-Sabatier University, Toulouse, France 
d Department of Cardiology, Rangueil Hospital, Paul-Sabatier University, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse, France 
e M3C Marie-Lannelongue Hospital, paediatric and congenital cardiac surgery, Paris Sud University, Paris, France 
f Paediatric and congenital cardiology, Haut Lévêque Hospital, M3C CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France 
g Inserm UMR 1087 – CNRS UMR6291, institut du Thorax, Nantes University, Nantes, France 
h Paediatric and congenital cardiology, La Timone Hospital, M3C CHU de Marseille, Marseille, France 
i Gabriel-Montpied Hospital, M3C CHRU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France 
j Institut Jacques-Cartier, Massy, France 
k Clocheville Hospital, M3C CHRU de Tours, Tours, France 
l Nord Laennec Hospital, M3C CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France 
m Albert-Calmette Hospital, M3C CHRU de Lille, Lille, France 
n Royal Brompton Hospital, London, England, UK 

Corresponding author at: Cardiologie pédiatrique, hôpital des enfants, CHU de Toulouse, 330, avenue de Grande-Bretagne, TSA 70034, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France.

Many stents are used “off-label” during the management of congenital heart diseases (CHD).


To describe indications for, results of, and adverse events associated with stenting in CHD in current practice.


Participation in this study was proposed to all catheterization laboratories that specialize in CHD in France (M3C network). All paediatric and adult CHD cases with stent implantation in 2013 were included retrospectively.


Overall, 207 stents were implanted in 151 patients across 11 centres. Median age was 13.7 years (range, 5 days to 70.1 years). Main procedure indications were branch pulmonary artery angioplasty (n =46, 29.1%), aortic (re)coarctation stenting (n =43, 27.2%), percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (n =32, 20.2%) and ductus arteriosus stenting (n =14, 8.9%). The main stents implanted were the CP Stent™ (n =61, 29.5%), the Max™ LD stent (n =43, 20.8%), the Valeo® stent (n =28, 13.5%) and valved stents (n =30, 14.5%). Procedures were considered successful in 96.8% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.8–99.0%). Adverse events were observed in 23 procedures (14.7%, 95% CI 9.5–21.0%). Ductus arteriosus stenting (odds ratio 12.4, 95% CI 2.0–77.5; P <0.01) and pulmonary revalvulation (odds ratio 5.9, 95% CI 1.1–32.3; P =0.04) were risk markers for stent-related adverse events.


Stents are used in various CHD catheterization procedures, from infancy to adult age. The adverse events rate is significant and is related to the type of procedure.

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De nombreux stents sont utilisés off-label pour le traitement interventionnel des cardiopathies congénitales.


L’objectif principal de cette étude est de décrire les indications, les résultats et les événements indésirables des stents implantés pour le traitement des cardiopathies congénitales en pratique courante.


La participation à cette étude a été proposée à tous les centres français de cardiologie interventionnelle pédiatrique et congénitale (réseau M3C). Parmi 11 centres participants, tous les procédures avec stents, sur une année en 2013 ont été analysés rétrospectivement.


Deux cents sept stents ont été implantés chez 151 patients. L’âge médian était de 13,7ans (min : 5jours ; max : 70,1ans). Les indications principales des procédures étaient l’angioplastie des branches pulmonaires (n =46, 29,1 %), l’angioplastie de l’isthme aortique (n =43, 27,2 %), la revalvulation pulmonaire percutanée (n =32, 20,2 %), et le stenting de canal artériel (n =14, 8,9 %). Les principaux stents utilisés étaint le CP Stent™ (n =61, 29,5 %), l’eV3 Max™ LD (n =43, 20,8 %), le Valeo® (n =28, 13,5 %) et les stents valvés (n =30, 14,5 %). Les procédures ont été réussies dans 96,8 % (IC 95 % 92,8–99,0 %). Des événements indésirables ont été observés dans 23 procédures (14,7 %, IC 95 % 9,5–21,0 %). Le stenting du canal artériel (OR 12,4, IC 95 % 2,0–77,5 ; p <0,01) et la revalvulation pulmonaire (OR 5,9, IC 95 % 1,1–32,3 ; p =0,04) étaient des marqueurs de risque de complications reliées au stent.


Les stents sont utilisés dans de multiples procédures du cathétérisme interventionnel des cardiopathies congénitales, de l’enfance à l’âge adulte. Le risque de complications est significatif et semble relié au type de procédure.

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Keywords : Stent, Congenital heart diseases, Paediatric cardiology, Bioresorbable stent, Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation

Mots clés : Stent congenital, Cardiopathies congénitales, Cardiologie pédiatrique, Stent biorésorbable, Revalvulation pulmonaire percutanée

Abbreviations : CHD, CI, DA, OR, PPVI, RVOT


Since the first report of transcatheter balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis in 1953 [1], balloon angioplasty has been widely used for many valvular and vascular congenital lesions [2, 3, 4, 5]. However, ineffective relief of obstruction and vessel damage has been observed [3, 4, 5]. A “stent” is a tubular meshed endoprosthesis that has contributed to overcome some of these issues, whether in acquired or congenital lesions [4, 6, 7, 8]. We recently published an extended review of stent types and indications in the treatment of congenital heart diseases (CHD) [9]. However, we were unable to describe the distribution of indications and stents used in current practice. Moreover, new stents are available [10, 11, 12], but few devices are authorized for use in congenital heart lesions, and many stents are currently implanted in “off-label” indications. As the field of congenital and interventional cardiology is rapidly evolving, the safety and efficiency of these procedures have to be investigated. In this French multicentre study, we aimed to describe the current types of stents used to treat congenital heart lesions, assess the indications for these procedures, evaluate their efficiency, and underline early complications after stenting and associated risk factors.


Participation in this retrospective observational multicentre study was proposed on a voluntary basis to all catheterization laboratories that specialize in the treatment of CHD in France (M3C network). Finally, 11 centres agreed to participate. All catheterization procedures involving stent implantation in children or adults with CHD performed in these centres between January 2013 and December 2013 were reviewed. Procedures with stent implantation in peripheral vascular lesions or in renal arteries in children were excluded. Hybrid procedures with stent implantation during cardiac surgery were included. Catheterizations were performed by paediatric cardiologists specialized in the interventional treatment of CHD. In three centres with less experience in stenting, procedures were performed in partnership with an expert from another centre.

Stenting procedures were performed according to operator and institutional practice. Variables collected included demographic data (age, weight and height), clinical data (diagnosis, catheterization indication), procedural data (type, diameter and localization of stents implanted, and results) and early complications. Early complications were defined as complications occurring during the initial stenting procedure, during the index hospitalization or during the first 30 days after the procedure. CHD were characterized according to the “anatomical and clinical classification of congenital heart defects (ACC-CHD)” for the main diagnosis [13]. The indication for stent implantation was collected and classified as follows [9]: stenting to increase the efficiency of balloon angioplasty; stenting to increase the safety of balloon angioplasty; stenting to occlude a shunt; stenting to maintain shunt patency; or stenting as a support for percutaneous valve replacement.

Stents were classified according to their diameter at the implantation site, as previously described: small (3–6mm), medium (7–11mm), large (12–17mm), extra-large (18–25mm) and extra-extra-large (>25mm) [14]. Stent implantation was considered successful when the following criteria were met: if the stent was implanted and stable in the target localization and if the stent fulfilled its main objective (no significant residual gradient if the indication was to relieve an obstruction; no parietal lesion for a safety indication; no residual shunting if the indication was to occlude a shunt; shunt patency if it was the main objective; successful valved stent implantation).

Procedural and 30 days post-procedure adverse events were classified according to the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project (C3PO) [15].

The term “adverse events” was inclusive of all adverse events from severity levels 1 to 5. High-severity adverse events were defined as any level 3, 4 or 5 adverse events. If stent implantation was the most likely cause leading to a complication, the latter was recorded as a stent-related adverse event. Each procedure with an adverse event was reviewed by the main investigator and local investigators. The study database was registered and approved by the National Commission for Data Processing and Freedoms (no 1809711 v 0).

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using Stata® 11.2 software (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Quantitative measurements are expressed as medians with interquartile ranges and minimal and maximal values. Qualitative data are expressed as counts and percentages. A descriptive analysis of demographic data, pathology, stent types, stent indications and adverse events was performed, displaying percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential determinants of outcome were then investigated through a logistic regression analysis, including all procedures. Outcome measures were all procedural adverse events, stent-related adverse events, and high-severity adverse events. The following variables were incorporated separately into the model: operator, centre, age, weight, genetic syndrome, stent type, stent size and procedure type. Unadjusted odd ratios, their 95% CIs and P values are reported. The model, including the procedure type, was forced with the operator variable to account for its effect. Adjusted odd ratios (ORs) are reported. A P value<0.05 was considered to be significant.


A total of 207 stents were implanted during 158 procedures in 151 patients across 11 centres. The patients’ median age was 13.7 years (range, 5 days to 70.1 years). Nineteen patients (12.6%) were aged under 1 year and 41 (27.2%) were aged over 18 years. The main diagnoses were tetralogy of Fallot and variants (n =55, 36.7%) and aortic (re)coarctation (n =40, 26.5%). Demographic data and procedure types are detailed in Table 1.

Stenting indications

Stents were used to increase the efficacy of balloon dilation (n =87, 42.0%), as part of percutaneous valve implantation (n =60, 29.0%), for a safety reason (n =32, 15.5%), to maintain shunt patency (n =20, 9.7%) or to close shunt patency (n =3, 1.4%) (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Main indications were branch pulmonary artery angioplasty (n =46, 29.1%), aortic (re)coarctation stenting (n =43, 27.2%), percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) (n =32, 20.2%) and ductus arteriosus (DA) stenting (n =14, 8.9%) (Figure 2). Procedural indications, stent types and stent sizes are displayed in Table 2.

Figure 1

Figure 1. 

An unusual indication for stent implantation: Potts shunt occlusion. A. Angiography of the left pulmonary artery (LPA); the descending aorta (Ao) is made opaque through the Potts shunt. B. Simultaneous angiography of the LPA and aorta before implantation of a Valiant® thoracic covered stent graft (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). C. Angiography of the aorta after stent implantation and post dilation. D. Angiography of the LPA after stent implantation; no residual shunting is seen.


Figure 2

Figure 2. 

Ductus arteriosus (DA) stenting. A. Angiography of the DA through a retrograde approach. B. From a venous femoral access, a balloon-expandable Valeo® stent (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA) is positioned across the DA. C. The stent is implanted. D. Final result.


DA stenting was performed in three patients with duct-dependent pulmonary circulation: pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (n =2; one patient requiring two stents); and tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (n =1). In the patient with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, a second procedure with a second stent implantation in the DA was required, 2 days after the initial procedure. In the remaining 10 patients, the DA stenting was performed in duct-dependent systemic circulation (aortic arch interruption, n =5; hypoplastic left heart complex, n =5) as part of a hybrid strategy. In two cases, the DA stenting was performed during the surgery through the main pulmonary artery. In eight cases, the DA stenting was attempted via a venous femoral access (Figure 2); in one of these cases, conversion to a transpulmonary artery approach was required.

More than one stent was implanted in 41 (25.9%) procedures (two stents, n =35; three stents, n =3; four stents, n =2; five stents, n =1). A percutaneous tricuspid valve implantation required four stents as a landing zone to anchor an Edwards SAPIEN™ valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) as a rescue to stabilize an embolized device. During PPVI procedures, prestenting of the landing zone was performed in 22/28 (78.6%) patients, with one stent (n =19) or two stents (n =2). One PPVI procedure required implantation of three non-covered stents to seal a right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tear before implantation of a Melody® valve (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA).

The most implanted stent was the CP Stent™ (n =61, 29.5%) (Cheatham-Platinum 8-Zig; NuMED Inc., Hopkinton, NY, USA), followed by the Max™ LD stent (n =43, 20.8%) (eV3 Inc., Plymouth, MN, USA) and the Valeo® stent (n =28, 13.5%) (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA). Bioresorbable coronary stents were used in two cases to treat proximal coronary artery stenosis. Covered stents were used in 17 (8.2%) cases, mostly in native aortic coarctation (n =7) or recoarctation (n =3). Premounted stents were used in 67 cases (32.4%). Stent types, sizes and indications are detailed in Table 2. The CP Stent™ and the Max™ LD stent were used in similar indications. The CP Stent™ was designed for use in CHD and was chosen mainly for its radial strength. Alternatively, the Max™ LD stent, which has good radial strength and an open-cell design, was used when side branch jailing was necessary. The Valeo® stent was particularly used during PA stenting in medium-sized vessels, given its open-cell design and its ability to be redilated to large diameters.

Stent implantation: technical aspects

Stent implantation was performed according to operator habits. Overall, interoperator stenting techniques were similar. Heparin and antibiotics were used during the procedure. Aspirin was given for a variable duration depending on stent location (from 3 months for aortic coarctation to6 months in valved stents). A delivering sheath was always used for implantation of medium to extra-extra-large stents. In small stents, a guiding catheter was used. In DA stenting the stent was forwarded on the guidewire only. A BIB® balloon (NuMED Inc., Hopkinton, NY, USA) was used for large to extra-large stents. A Z-MED™ balloon (NuMED Inc.) was used for non-premounted medium stents. Minor variations were observed regarding the crimping technique of non-premounted stents.

Success rate/adverse events

Procedures were considered successful in 96.8% of cases (n =153, 95% CI 92.8–99.0%). Among failed procedures, stenting indications were native aortic coarctation stenting (n =1; stent migration), RVOT stenting (n =1; stent migration), PPVI (n =1; inability of the Edwards valve to reach the landing zone, surgical extraction through the femoral vein) and DA stenting (n =2: stent migration in one case; stent blocked in the tricuspid valve in the other case). The procedural success rate across centres ranged between 90.0% and 100.0% and was not significantly different (P =0.3).

Adverse events were observed in 23 procedures (14.7%, 95% CI 9.5–21.0%). High-severity adverse events were observed in 19 procedures (12.0%, 95% CI 7.4–18.1%), while stent-related adverse events were observed in 16 procedures (10.1%, 95% CI 5.9–15.9). Early adverse events distribution is detailed in Table 3. Only one arrhythmia was reported in an 11-year-old patient with truncus arteriosus who had ventricular fibrillation a few hours after successful right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit stenting, and was successfully defibrillated. Surgical extraction of the stent was performed with surgical valved conduit replacement and pericardial defibrillator implantation. A cerebellum stroke with spontaneous complete recovery was observed in a 43-year-old patient following native aortic coarctation stenting with a Max™ LD stent. Another stroke was observed in a 13-year-old patient following native transverse aortic arch stenting with a Max™ LD stent, and was successfully treated by interventional thrombectomy. Early bacteraemia (Staphylococcus aureus ) was observed in a 33-year-old patient a few days after a PPVI using an Edwards SAPIEN™ valve, leading to surgical pulmonary valve replacement. No early stent fracture was reported.

Periprocedural mortality was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2–4.5%). A 19-day-old baby with hypoplastic left heart syndrome underwent DA stenting via a venous femoral approach. The Valeo® stent that was planned to be implanted was blocked in the tricuspid valve and could not be advanced over the guidewire to the DA. Surgical removal of the stent was then performed under extracorporeal circulation, and DA stenting was subsequently performed through the pulmonary artery. The hybrid procedure was completed but the baby died a few days later from multi-organ failure. A second death was observed in a 22-year-old patient as a result of an acute massive pulmonary haemorrhage following a PPVI procedure.

Two of the five failed procedures were associated with high-severity adverse events needing surgery. Access-related adverse events were observed in six cases (26.1%, 95% CI 6.2–48.4%).

Adverse events were managed by stent implantation in six cases (26.1%; DA stent malposition, n =2; pulmonary haemorrhage, n =2; RVOT tear, n =1; RVOT stent migration, n =1). Three cases of acute reperfusion lung syndrome were managed by prolonged mechanical ventilation. An ischaemic stroke and a retroperitoneal hemorrhage required radio intervention (8.7%). Peripheral vascular surgery for femoral access-related adverse events was performed in four cases (17.4%; aortic stenting, n =2; PPVI, n =2). Emergency cardiac surgery was required in one case (4.3%; DA stenting with stent blocked in the tricuspid valve). Urgent cardiac surgery was also performed in two cases (bacteraemia following PPVI, n =1; ventricular fibrillation following RVOT stenting, n =1). Haemodynamic instability following DA stenting was managed medically in two cases.

Stent-related adverse event distribution was not significantly different regarding stent type (P =0.80) (Table 2). The distributions of total adverse events, stent-related adverse events and high-severity adverse events were not significantly different across centres (P =0.24, P =0.44 and P =0.31, respectively). For indications with more than 10 procedures, total adverse event rates ranged from 10.0% (95% CI 2.5–44.5%) for RVOT stenting to 28.6% (95% CI 8.4–58.1%) for DA stenting. DA stenting adverse events occurred in four cases, all in duct-dependent systemic circulation. No adverse events were reported in DA stenting of duct-dependent pulmonary circulation. Distribution of stent-related adverse events was significantly different across procedures, considering transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, DA stenting, PA stenting and pooled other procedures (P =0.028). Potential risk markers of adverse events are reported in Table 4. Only stent size and procedure type were significantly associated with stent-related adverse events after logistic regression analysis. DA stenting (OR 12.4, 95% CI 2.0–77.5; P <0.01) and PPVI (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.1–32.3; P =0.04) remained associated with an increased risk of stent-related adverse events after adjustment for the operator. DA stenting, while representing 8.9% of procedure indications, accounted for 25.0% of procedures with stent-related adverse events. Centre, operator, age, weight, genetic syndrome and type of stent were not significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse events.

Safety and efficacy of stenting in congenital heart disease

In this retrospective multicentre observational study, we report the use of stenting in CHD across 11 French centres. We observed that in the current congenital interventional cardiology era, stents are used routinely in a wide range of settings, from neonates to adult patients [16, 17]. Stenting in CHD is a highly successful procedure (over 95% success rate in this study), regardless of implantation site, type of stent and complexity of procedure. However, early complications are frequent. Particularly, in our study, when looking at determinants of complications, we observed that DA stenting and PPVI were associated with an increased risk of stent-related adverse events. Thus, the rate of complications is highly dependent on the location of stenting [18]. PPVI, using the two currently available devices (i.e. the Melody valve and the Edwards SAPIEN™ valve), has become a routinely performed procedure [19, 20]. However, it is a long procedure that often requires prestenting of the landing zone to strengthen the RVOT, which can lead to an increased rate of adverse events, as observed in our study [21]. While representing 10% of procedures in this study, DA stenting is also one of the most challenging interventions, accounting for 25% of all procedures with stent-related complications. A hybrid stage 1 palliation programme was only recently started in one centre. A learning curve effect may explain why these results compared unfavourably with other reports [22].

Few stent implantation failures were related to stent malpositioning, stent embolization or an inability to dispatch the stent (3.2% of all implantations). This is less than the 7.7% ratio previously reported by Van Gameren et al. in 2006 in a Dutch and Belgian study with a similar design, covering the first 10 years of stent use in CHD [18]. Despite improved experience, stent implantations remain challenging procedures, and operator skill is still a key issue [23]. The rate of early complications remains high (14.7% of procedures in this study, 19% in the study by Van Gameren et al.), leading to an overall procedural mortality of 1.3% in our work. Most complications during stent implantation were transient and resolved without ending the procedure; some others required emergency surgery [24]. Thus, our work reminds us that catheterization of CHD with stent implantation should be performed in specialized centres with congenital cardiac surgery available as backup [25].

Different types of stents

Our study confirms the important role of the CP Stent, which was developed specifically for the treatment of CHD [26, 27]. Conversely, the role of the Max™ LD stent is described less frequently in the literature. Our study reports the efficiency and the safety of this stent as an alternative to the CP Stent for use in various congenital heart lesions. However, two strokes were observed during aortic arch coarctation stenting with this stent. Despite the open-cell design, the sharp edges or potential thrombogenicity may have contributed to these adverse events. Our study also illustrates the increased impact of the Valeo® stent, mostly used in the peripheral pulmonary artery stenting and in DA stenting [10, 28].

Bare-metal coronary stent implantation has been required occasionally in children, but the inability to follow vessel growth has been a major issue [29]. In this study, bioresorbable coronary stents were used in two children with post-operative coronary stenosis. Bioresorbable stents have been developed recently for coronary artery diseases, with the aim of dissolving after vessel healing. This concept is particularly interesting in children. Indeed, once the stent has disappeared, the vessel may follow the child's growth, obviating the need for future surgery or dilation [30, 31]. However, radial force is low and only small stent diameters are currently available. Bioresorbable stents dedicated for use in CHD are under development, and efficiency in children remains to be demonstrated [32].

Covered stents were used in fewer than 10% of procedures, mainly in first intention, to treat more complex or tighter native aortic coarctation or post-operative recoarctation [33]. Covered stents were also used occasionally to closed shunt patency (Potts fenestration [34] and cavopulmonary conduit fenestration occlusion [35]) or to seal damaged vessels after pulmonary artery or RVOT angioplasty. In our series, the covered CP Stent was mostly used. However, the outer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane of this device is fragile and can easily be damaged during stent crimping or stent insertion into the delivery sheath. Thus, the profile is higher and large sheaths are needed, which may be a point of concern in small children. In our work and that of others, the Advanta V12™ stent (Atrium Medical Corporation, Hudson, NH, USA) was used as an alternative in aortic (re)coarctation stenting [36]. This stent has a better profile because its membrane is completely incorporated into the inner and outer parts of a premounted balloon-expandable stent. On the other hand, radial strength seems lower and collapse has been observed [37]. The ideal covered stent for use in CHD remains to be developed. The evolution of stent framework and materials, and new synthetic and biological membrane components may help to overcome these issues [38].

Study limitations

Our work has several limitations. Given the retrospective design of this study, although an effort has been made to report all adverse events, it is likely that some adverse events, especially those of lesser significance (levels 1 to 2), may have not been reported completely. Our study may also not have enough power to identify all risk markers of adverse events. Nevertheless, we identified that the type of stenting procedure was a key issue. Moreover we did not study the follow-up, so we were unable to provide data on medium- and long-term late adverse events, such as stent fractures, stent restenosis, vessel aneurysm and stent mismatch following children growth. This work has, nevertheless, the merit to be a preliminary work of a collaborative group of experts that was recently set up with the objective of creating a French prospective database of catheterization procedures in the field of CHD to overcome these limits.


Stents are useful in various CHD catheterization procedures, from infancy to adult age. The adverse events rate should still not be underestimated and is mainly related to the type of procedure. Ideal stents for use in CHD remain to be developed. Miniaturization of delivery systems would facilitate implantation in tortuous and small vessels, and decrease the risk of vessel access trauma. Biodegradable stents may overcome the inability of stents to follow natural vessel growth. There is now a wide panel of stents used in CHD. Further development, comparative studies and certification procedures have to be encouraged.

Disclosure of interest

The authors have not supplied their declaration of conflict of interest.


The authors thank Hélène Bouvaist, Melanie Steuer, Jean-René Lusson, François Heitz, Alain Chantepie, Jérôme Petit, Didier Carrié, Thibault Lhermusier and Meyer Elbaz for their contribution to this work.


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