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RFL - Revue francophone des laboratoires
Volume 2016, n° 480
pages 71-80 (mars 2016)
Doi : 10.1016/S1773-035X(16)30091-0
Les fièvres hémorragiques virales
Viral Haemorragic fever
 

Pierre Tattevin a, , Gisèle Lagathu b, Matthieu Revest a, Christian Michelet a
a Maladies Infectieuses et Réanimation Médicale, CHU Pontchaillou, Rue Louis Guilloux, 35000, Rennes, France 
b Virologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rue Louis Guilloux, 35000, Rennes, France 

*Correspondance.
Résumé

Les fièvres hémorragiques virales regroupent plusieurs viroses, potentiellement graves, avec un tableau clinique relativement stéréotypé, d’évolution biphasique. Après une incubation de 2 à 21 jours, apparition d’un syndrome pseudo-grippal qui évolue au bout de quelques jours, de manière imprévisible, chez une proportion variable de patients, vers un syndrome hémorragique avec choc. La transmission interhumaine s’effectue le plus souvent par contacts avec des liquides biologiques, surtout en présence de sang. La biologie de ces virus, leur épidémiologie et leur létalité sont très variables. Pour toutes ces fièvres hémorragiques virales, l’importance d’un diagnostic rapide réside plus dans la nécessité d’interrompre les chaînes de transmission que dans les possibilités thérapeutiques, limitées aux traitements symptomatiques, à l’exception notable de la fièvre de Lassa (efficacité probable de la ribavirine).

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Summary

Viral haemorragic fevers are characterized by similar clinical manifestations, with a biphasic course :

After a 2-21 day-incubation, onset of an influenza-like illness, that will drive to an haemorragic syndrom with shock, in a subgroup of patients, unpredictable. Human-to-human transmission mostly occurs through contact with biological fluids, especially if contaminated with blood. The biology, the epidemiology and the letality of these viruses differ. For all these viral haemorragic fevers, the importance of an early diagnosis relies mostly in the need to interrupt human-to-human transmission, as therapeutic options are mostly restricted to symptomatic treatment, with the exception of Lassa fever (ribavirin probably effective).

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots-clés : Fièvre de Lassa, fièvre de la Vallée du Rift, fièvre de Marburg, Ebola, fièvre hémorragique Crimée-Congo

Keyword : Lassa fever, Rift valley fever, Marburg fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo haemorragic fever




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