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Archives de pédiatrie
Volume 24, n° 5S
pages 518-522 (mai 2017)
Doi : 10.1016/S0929-693X(17)24005-6
Fer et neurodéveloppement
Iron and Neurodevelopment

L. Vallée
 Service de neuropédiatrie, Pôle enfant, CHRU, université de Lille 2,59037, Lille, France 


Dans le système nerveux central, le fer est un cofacteur de nombreux processus métaboliques et dans la synthèse des neurotransmetteurs monoaminergiques. Le fer joue un rôle essentiel sur le développement cérébral de la période anténatale à la fin de l’adolescence. La barrière hémato-encéphalique intervient sur la concentration en fer au niveau du parenchyme cérébral. Lors d’une carence en fer, les conséquences sur la myélinogenèse et la synaptogenèse sont bien démontrées, avec ses effets délétères sur les fonctions psychomotrices et cognitives. L’apport en fer est bénéfique sur ces mêmes fonctions indépendamment de l’existence d’une anémie. Les conséquences sont d’autant plus délétères que la carence en fer est précoce. Les différents mécanismes sont revus dans cette mise au point.

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In the central nervous system, iron is a cofactor of many metabolic processes and synthesis of aminergic neurotransmitters. Iron plays an major function on brain development from the prenatal period to teenage years. The blood-brain barrier modulates concentration of iron in the brain. In case of iron deficiency in the child, the negative impact on the myelinogenesis and synaptogenesis are well proven, with negative effects on psychomotor and cognitive functions. Iron supplementation has a beneficial effect, even if there is no anemia. The consequences of iron deficiency are more harmful as deficiency is early. The main mechanisms involved about iron and brain are reviewed.

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