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Nutrition clinique et métabolisme
Volume 15, n° 4
pages 286-297 (décembre 2001)
Nutrition et fonction immunitaire
Nutrition and immune function

Philip C.  Calder *
Institute of human nutrition, school of medicine, university of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton S016 7PX, UK 

*Correspondance et tirés à part.
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Un déficit énergétique majeur ainsi que celui en un ou plusieurs nutriments tels vitamines A, B6, B12, C, E, acide folique, zinc, cuivre, fer, sélénium, acides aminés essentiels et acides gras essentiels, peut altérer la fonction immunitaire et augmenter la sensibilité aux infections. Cela est lié à l'implication des nutriments dans les réponses moléculaires et cellulaires du système immunitaire. La correction de ces déficits restaure la fonction immunitaire et améliore la résistance aux infections. Ainsi, une nutrition appropriée est nécessaire pour maintenir chez l'hôte des défenses immunes dirigées contre les bactéries, les virus, les champignons, les parasites, les cellules tumorales. Bien que, chez le sujet sain, les quantités de certains nutriments requises pour l'amélioration des fonctions immunes soient plus importantes que les apports recommandés, les excès de ces nutriments peuvent également altérer les fonctions immunitaires. Quelques nutriments (par exemple la glutamine et l'arginine) peuvent devenir limitant au cours des états d'agression, et de plus en plus de données viennent appuyer l'idée que leur apport peut aider à la guérison du patient.

Mots clés  : cytokine ; immunité ; infection.

Abstract

A deficiency of total energy or of one or more essential nutrients, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, and E, folic acid, zinc, iron, copper, selenium, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, will impair immune function and increase susceptibility of the host to infectious pathogens. This is most likely because these nutrients are involved in the molecular and cellular responses to challenge of the immune system. Providing these nutrients to deficient individuals restores immune function and improves resistance to infection. Thus, appropriate nutrition is required in order for the host to maintain adequate immune defences towards bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and tumour cel circ;s. Although the intakes of several nutrients which result in greatest enhancement of immune function appear to be greater than recommended intakes, excess intake of certain nutrients also impairs immune responses. Some nutrients (e.g. glutamine, arginine) may become limiting in critical illness and there is mounting evidence that provision of these will aid patient recovery.

Mots clés  : cytokine ; immunity ; infection ; nutrition.




© 2001  Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All Rights Reserved.

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