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Joint Bone Spine
Volume 85, n° 6
pages 701-707 (décembre 2018)
Doi : 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.12.003
accepted : 8 November 2017
Reviews

Epigenetics of bone diseases
 

Laetitia Michou a, b,
a Division de rhumatologie, département de médecine,centre de recherche, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, R-4774 Québec, Canada 
b Service de rhumatologie,CHU de Québec-Université Laval, 2705, boulevard Laurier, R-4774 Québec, Canada 

Correspondence. Service de rhumatologie, centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, université Laval, 2705, boulevard Laurier, R-4774 Québec, Canada.Service de rhumatologie, centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, université Laval, 2705, boulevard Laurier, R-4774 Québec, Canada.
Highlights

Epigenetic regulation is a key player not only in normal bone remodeling, but also in the majority of malignant and non-malignant bone diseases.
Exposure to environmental factors and lifestyle factors influences the development of epigenetic modifications.
This interaction opens up new possibilities for risk factor modulation in chronic bone disease.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Abstract

Histone deacetylation, DNA methylation, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are the three main epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. All the physiological processes involved in bone remodeling are tightly regulated by epigenetic factors. This review discusses the main epigenetic modifications seen in tumoral and non-tumoral bone diseases, with emphasis on miRNAs. The role for epigenetic modifications of gene expression in the most common bone diseases is illustrated by drawing on the latest publications in the field. In multifactorial bone diseases such as osteoporosis, many epigenetic biomarkers, either alone or in combination, have been associated with bone mineral density or suggested to predict osteoporotic fractures. In addition, treatments designed to modulate bone remodeling by selectively targeting the function of specific miRNAs are being evaluated. Advances in the understanding of epigenetic regulation shed new light on the pathophysiology of other non-tumoral bone diseases, including genetic conditions inherited on a Mendelian basis. Finally, in the area of primary and metastatic bone tumors, the last few years have witnessed considerable progress in elucidating the epigenetic regulation of oncogenesis and its local interactions with bone tissue. These new data may allow the development of epigenetic outcome predictors, which are in very high demand, and of innovative therapeutic agents acting via miRNA modulation.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Keywords : Epigenetics, Histone deacetylation, DNA methylation, Micro-RNAs, Osteoporosis, Bone disease




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