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Comptes Rendus Palevol
Volume 5, n° 1-2
pages 343-351 (janvier-février 2006)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crpv.2005.11.005
Received : 10 January 2005 ;  accepted : 14 November 2005
The oldest human groups in the Levant
 

Avraham Ronen
Department of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel 

Written on invitation of the Editorial Board

Abstract

Between 2.5 and 0.8 Myr, at least four episodes of hominine dispersal from Africa to the Levant are known, each culturally distinct. All have settled on lakes or river banks. The oldest occurrence is Yiron, in the northern portion of the Israeli Rift, with flint artefacts in a fluviatile deposit below a basalt layer dated 2.4 Myr. Yiron was followed by the Ubeidiya group in the central Rift ca. 1.4 Myr, with a Lower Acheulean industry. Somewhat later, the Bizat Ruhama group has settled (1.0 Myr) in the eastern coastal plain, with a small, microlith-size industry. Around 0.8 Myr, newcomers have settled at Gesher Benot Yaaqov (GBY) in the northern Rift, introducing the cleaver tradition. None of the sites yielded human remains. The cultures of Bizat Ruhama and GBY have subsequently disappeared. During the Lower Palaeolithic the Levant remained largely an Acheulean province, probably evolved from Ubeidiya. The Late/Final Acheulean, with developed Levallois technology is the possible ancestor of the Middle Palaeolithic ‘Levallois-Mousterian'. To cite this article: A. Ronen, C. R. Palevol 5 (2006) .

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Résumé

Les premiers peuplements du Proche et du Moyen-Orient. Entre 2,5 et 0,8 Ma, au moins quatre épisodes de dispersion humaine de l'Afrique vers le Levant sont connus. La plus ancienne est celle de Yiron, avec des éléments en silex dans un dépôt fluviatile sous-jacent à une couche de basalte datée de 2,4 Ma, dans le Nord du Rift israélien. Le groupe Acheuléen ancien d'Ubeidiya, 1,4 Ma, lui succède dans le Rift central ; ce groupe est lui-même suivi par le groupe de Bizat Ruhama (1.0 Ma), à industrie microlithique, dans l'Est de la plaine côtière. Vers 0,8 Ma, un nouveau groupe s'installe dans le Gesher Benot Yaaqov (GBY), dans le Nord du Rift. L'industrie y est conforme à la tradition biface, mais présente une forte proportion de hacheraux. Les industries de Bizat Ruhama et de GBY ont par la suite disparu. Le Levant resterait une province largement acheuléenne, ayant probablement évolué à partir d'Ubeidiya, jusqu'à la phase finale à technique Levallois, qui pourrait être l'ancêtre du « Levallois-Moustérien » au Paléolithique moyen du Levant. Pour citer cet article : A. Ronen, C. R. Palevol 5 (2006) .

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Keywords : Levant, Hominine dispersal, Lower and Middle Palaeolithic, Acheulean, pre-Acheulean

Mots clés : Proche-Orient, Moyen-Orient, Dispersion humaine, Paléolithique inférieur et moyen, Acheuléen, pré-Acheuléen




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