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Nutrition clinique et métabolisme
Volume 14, n° 3
pages 221-234 (septembre 2000)
Doi : S0985-0562(00)80026-6
Acides gras polyinsaturés n -3 : anti-catabolisme et prévention de l'insulino-résistance
N-3 fatty acids: effects on catabolism and insulin action
 

Jacques Delarue
 Médecine 4 et EA-948, CHU de Brest, 29200 Brest, France 

Résumé

Les acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne n -3 sont synthétisés par l'élongation et la désaturation de l'acide α-linolénique ou apportés dans l'alimentation par des produits d'origine marine. Ils s'incorporent dans les phospholipides membranaires, sont les précurseurs des eicosanoïdes et modulent l'expression de certains gènes. Ils ont un effet anti-catabolique en inhibant la production de cytokines pro-inflammatoires (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) par les macrophages, et en s'opposant à l'action de facteurs cachectisants sécrétés par les tumeurs. Ils ont aussi un effet modulateur de la sensibilité à l'insuline en prévenant, chez le rat, l'insulino-résistance induite par le régime hyperlipidique. Cet effet est lié à un moindre stockage des triglycérides musculaires et à un effet sur la signalisation de l'insuline. Chez le diabétique de type 2, ils ne corrigent pas l'insulino-résistance, alors qu'il apparaît que chez l'homme en bonne santé, ils pourraient augmenter l'utilisation du glucose.

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Summary

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are produced by elongation and desaturation of α-linolenic acid or brought in diet by marine products. They are incorporated in membranes phospholipids, are precursors of eicosanoïds, and modulate the expression of some genes. Their anti-catabolic effects results from their inhibiting effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) by mononuclear cells. They also counteract the effects of catabolic factors secreted by tumours. In rats, when substituted in high fat diet, they prevent insulin-resistance, through a lesser muscular triglycerides accumulation and an effect on insulin signalling. In patients with type 2 diabetes, they have no effect on insulin resistance, but in healthy subjects they increase whole body glucose uptake.

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Keyword : cachexie, cancer, DHA, EPA

Keywords : cachexia, cancer, DHA, EPA, insulin-resistance




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