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Archives de pédiatrie
Volume 13, n° 7
pages 1022-1028 (juillet 2006)
Doi : 10.1016/j.arcped.2006.03.143
Received : 1 August 2005 ;  accepted : 14 Mars 2006
Profil alimentaire de l'écolier à Brazzaville, Congo
A feeding survey among schoolchildren in Brazzaville, Congo
 

F. Mbemba a, , J.-R. Mabiala-Babela a, b, A. Massamba a, P. Senga b, c
a Laboratoire de physiologie de l'effort et de biomécanique, institut supérieur des sciences de l'éducation physique et du sport, université Marien-Ngouabi, BP 6118 Makélékélé, Brazzaville, Congo 
b Service de pédiatrie, centre hospitalier et universitaire, Brazzaville, Congo 
c Département de médecine, faculté des sciences de la santé, université Marien-Ngouabi, Brazzaville, Congo 

Auteur correspondant.
Résumé
Objectif

Identifier les caractéristiques nutritionnelles de l'écolier à Brazzaville, Congo.

Patients et méthodes

L'enquête alimentaire, sur 3 jours consécutifs, a été réalisée dans 3 écoles primaires sélectionnées selon un processus aléatoire. Elle a concerné 1066 enfants (534 garçons et 532 filles), âgés de 6 à 14 ans. Ces sujets ont été répartis en 4 catégories d'âge : 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 et 12-14 ans. L'interrogatoire portait sur l'ensemble des aliments consommés dans la journée, du lever au coucher.

Résultats et discussion

Les apports énergétiques journaliers demeuraient faibles, de valeur moyenne 1948,9±448 kcal. Ils augmentaient régulièrement entre 6 et 14 ans. La prise alimentaire du dîner représentait 67,5 % des apports caloriques journaliers. Les apports protéiques et lipidiques étaient couverts, mais les apports en glucides s'avéraient insuffisants. Les apports en phosphore et en calcium étaient faibles et les apports sodés supérieurs aux apports recommandés.

Conclusion

À côté de la lutte contre la pauvreté, le comportement alimentaire de l'écolier brazzavillois nécessite une politique judicieuse d'éducation nutritionnelle à l'endroit des parents, éducateurs et enfants.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Abstract
Objective

To identify nutritional characteristics among schoolchildren in Brazzaville, Congo.

Population and methods

A 3-day feeding survey was undertaken in 3 primary education schools in the Brazzaville borough. The study was conducted among 1066 schoolchildren (534 boys, 532 girls) ranging from 6 to 14 years. The subjects were divided into 4 age groups: 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 and 12-14 years old. The evolution of the feeding was studied according to age, and the nutritional intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowances.

Results and discussion

The energy intakes were low, the mean caloric intake was 1984.9±448 Kcal. They increased between 6 and 14 years, especially between 13 and 14 years, where mean increase was twice as important as between 6 and 7 years. Energy provided by the evening meal was equivalent to 67.5% of mean caloric intake per day. The quantities of aliments taken increased with age. In addition, there were excesses and insufficiencies common or specific to the Congolese children of 4 age groups. High natrium intakes were observed at age 12 years, insufficient intakes of phosphore and lipids at 10 years.

Conclusion

On the basis of the observation of the schoolchildren's behavior at Brazzaville, poverty seems to influence the schoolchildren's nutritional status. But, one could propose dietary advices, in order to improve the problems described here.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : École, Bilan nutritionnel, Afrique

Keywords : School age population, Nutrition survey, Congo (Brazzaville), Developing countries




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