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Archives de pédiatrie
Volume 14, n° 4
pages 404-409 (avril 2007)
Doi : 10.1016/j.arcped.2007.02.004
Diagnostic virologique des infections respiratoires
Diagnosis of viral respiratory infections

M. Leruez-Ville
Laboratoire de virologie EA 3620, hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, APHP, université René-Descartes-Paris-V, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France 


Les infections respiratoires de l'enfant sont à 80 % d'origine virale. La culture cellulaire était la technique de référence pour le diagnostic de ces infections mais cette technique tend à être supplantée par les techniques de biologie moléculaire et notamment la PCR en temps réel en raison de son excellente sensibilité et sa bonne praticabilité. Cependant, en pratique courante et dans la plupart des laboratoires, le diagnostic des infections virales respiratoires reste réalisé à l'aide de techniques reposant sur la mise en évidence des antigènes viraux notamment en immunofluorescence. Des tests de diagnostic rapide ou « doctors-tests », praticables en dehors d'un laboratoire, sont actuellement disponibles sur le marché, leur sensibilité reste inférieure à celle des autres techniques mais la généralisation de l'usage de ces tests notamment en cabinet médical est probable dans les années à venir. De nouvelles techniques de diagnostic des infections respiratoires reposant sur l'utilisation de puce à ADN sont en cours de mise au point et semblent très prometteuses.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

More than 80% of the cases of respiratory infections in children are of viral origin. Viral culture has been the reference method for the diagnosis of viral respiratory infections for years, but there is now a tendency to replace viral culture by molecular biology techniques, notably real-time PCR-based assay, because of its excellent sensitivity and good feasibility. Currently in most laboratories, however, diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is still done using techniques based on detection of viral antigens, especially immunofluorescence assays. Rapid diagnostic tests for use outside of laboratories are now available on the open market, and even if their sensitivity remains lower than that of other techniques, it is likely that they will become widely used, especially in doctors' offices, in the near future. New methods for the diagnosis of viral infections based on DNA microarray technologies are currently under investigation and appear to very promising.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : Infections respiratoires, Diagnostic direct, PCR en temps réel, Doctors tests, Virus Respiratory infections, Real time PCR, Doctors tests, Virus

Keywords : Respiratory infection, Viral infection, PCR-based assay, Immunofluorescence assay, DNA microassay test, Over-the-counter assay

 Article paru dans Revue française d'allergologie et d'immunologie clinique 2006;46:538-42.

© 2007  Elsevier SAS. All Rights Reserved.
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