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Comptes Rendus Géoscience
Volume 339, n° 11-12
pages 784-798 (octobre 2007)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crte.2007.08.008
Received : 1 January 2007 ;  accepted : 13 August 2007
Impacts of ozone on trees and crops
Impacts de l'ozone sur les arbres et les récoltes
 

Benjamin S. Felzer a, , Timothy Cronin a, John M. Reilly b, Jerry M. Melillo a, Xiaodong Wang b
a The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL St., Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA 
b Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 

Corresponding author.
Abstract

In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NOx , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized croplands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially.

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Résumé

Dans cette revue, nous explorons la manière dont l'ozone affecte, au niveau de la surface, les arbres et les récoltes, en mettant en particulier l'accent sur les conséquences quant à la productivité et à la séquestration du carbone. L'exposition de la végétation à l'ozone réduit la photosynthèse, la croissance ainsi que d'autres fonctions de la plante. La formation d'ozone dans l'atmosphère est imputable aux oxydes d'azote NOx , qui constituent aussi une source de dépôt d'azote. La séquestration du carbone issu de l'ozone, réduite dans les forêts tempérées, est vraisemblablement compensée par l'augmentation de la séquestration du carbone issu de la fertilisation azotée. Cependant, comme les sols fertilisés ne sont en général pas limités en ce qui concerne leur teneur en azote, les recouvrements de substances polluant l'ozone peuvent réduire sensiblement les pertes en termes de rendement des récoltes aux États-Unis, en Europe et en Chine.

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Keywords : Ozone, Nitrogen deposition, Vegetation, Photosynthesis, Stomatal conductance, Crop yield, Carbon storage

Mots clés : Ozone, Dépôt d'azote, Végétation, Photosynthèse, Conductivité des stomates, Rendement des récoltes, Stockage du carbone


1  Scenarios as included in Reilly et al. [85] with additional information from the authors. Discounted at 3% the global economic loss associated with ozone damage to crops, pasture, and forestry was 1.1% ($24 trillion) of the net present value of total macroeconomic consumption between 2005 and 2100. Net present value (NPV) benefits of avoided ozone damage associated with GHG limits were 0.4% ($9.5 trillion) and benefits of capping pollution were 0.53% ($12 trillion) with both a pollution cap and GHG limits [85].
2  Discounted at 3% they found that reduced carbon uptake due to ozone damage would increase the NPV macroeconomic consumption cost of the GHG policy by about 0.51% ($10.3 trillion). The potential benefits of ozone reduction resulting from the climate policy because of the ancillary benefits on pollution emissions was about 0.64% ($12.9 trillion) and additional benefits of a pollution cap another 0.39% ($7.8 trillion).


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