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Archives de pédiatrie
Volume 19, n° 10
pages 1079-1081 (octobre 2012)
Doi : 10.1016/j.arcped.2012.07.015
Received : 7 February 2012 ;  accepted : 11 July 2012
Cellulite néonatale à streptocoque du groupe B
Neonatal cellulitis caused by group B Streptococcus
 

S. Breinig , M. Roques-Gineste, M.-O. Marcoux, M.-C. Bloom
Service de réanimation pédiatrique, hôpital des enfants, 330, avenue de Grande-Bretagne, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France 

Auteur correspondant.
Résumé

Les cellulites de nouveau-né et du nourrisson de moins de trois mois sont rares et de présentation souvent atypique. Du fait de l’évolution potentiellement (et rapidement) létale d’un sepsis à streptocoque du groupe B, il est primordial d’éviter un retard du diagnostic et du traitement. Nous rapportons le cas d’une petite fille âgée de 14 j de vie, initialement hospitalisée en unité de réanimation pédiatrique pour une bronchiolite virale surinfectée sans aucun signe cutané. Il s’agissait d’une cellulite de la face (avec apparition secondaire d’une tuméfaction inflammatoire) à streptocoque de groupe B avec un sepsis sévère. L’évolution a été favorable sous antibiothérapie par amoxicilline pendant 10 j par voie intraveineuse, avec un contrôle du syndrome septique et une régression de la tuméfaction sous-mandibulaire.

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Summary

Dermohypodermitis (cellulitis) in newborn infants and in infants aged up to 3 months is uncommon and often not typical. Because group B Streptococcus is known to induce rapid life-threatening complications, early diagnosis leading to emergency treatment is of utmost importance. We report on the case of a 14-day-old girl, initially admitted for viral bronchiolitis with suspected bacterial pulmonary infection, in the absence of any cutaneous injury. The disease actually was cellulitis of the face, caused by group B Streptococcus . The baby presented with a severe septic clinical condition. Early treatment with antibiotics (intravenous amoxicillin for 10 days) allowed a favorable course, with rapid control of the sepsis and regression of the submandibular tumefaction.

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