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Annales médico-psychologiques
Volume 171, n° 6
pages 382-388 (juillet 2013)
Doi : 10.1016/j.amp.2011.09.018
Received : 1 June 2011 ;  accepted : 27 September 2011
Anxiété et performance : de la théorie à la pratique
Anxiety and performance: From theory to practice
 

Jérôme Palazzolo a, , Julien Arnaud b
a 5, quai des Deux-Emmanuel, 06300 Nice, France 
b 4, boulevard de Cimiez, 06000 Nice, France 

Auteur correspondant.
Résumé

Les théories contemporaines de l’anxiété la conçoivent comme une réponse du sujet, conditionnée par des interactions complexes entre tâche, contexte et variables individuelles. Elles permettent de dépasser une approche phénoménale et descriptive, d’entreprendre une démarche expérimentale, mettant à jour les déterminants et les conséquences de l’anxiété, d’envisager et de valider des stratégies d’intervention susceptibles d’optimiser le contrôle de l’anxiété. Dans cet article, nous nous sommes attachés à mettre en exergue les rapports étroits entretenus entre anxiété liée à une situation de performance et performance sportive elle-même, en insistant particulièrement sur le concept d’anxiété compétitive. Le stress peut, dans un tel contexte, représenter un véritable handicap pour le sujet qui souhaite améliorer sa technique sportive, ou encore s’améliorer sur le plan personnel. Il importe donc de connaître parfaitement ce phénomène, qui s’exprime aussi bien sur un plan physique que sur un plan psychique. Et une fois cet aspect entériné, il est nécessaire de pouvoir gérer son stress dans une optique de mieux-être, ce qui permet de libérer l’esprit d’un carcan souvent à l’origine de troubles divers.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Abstract

Performance anxiety in sports, sometimes referred to as “choking”, is described as a decrease in athletic performance due to too much perceived stress. Perceived stress often increases in athletes on game day because 1) they have an audience and 2) they have extremely high expectations of their success. This type of stress is often based upon the way the athletes interpret the situation. It is rarely the external situation that causes stress, but rather the way the athlete's self talk describes the situation that creates feelings of stress, anxiety and fear. For athletes who choke during competition it is important to understand that the thoughts they have regarding the event can be modified, adjusted or controlled with appropriate sports psychology and mental practice. An athlete should first determine if thoughts of doubt, failure or a lack of confidence are due to a perceived lack of ability. If so, the self talk will generally lead to continued feelings of anxiety, nervousness, and tension. Athlete needs to realize that it is tough to do his best in a sport when his own internal voice is telling him otherwise. To overcome performance anxiety, traditional coaches and trainers may try to help the athlete understand why those thoughts and feelings develop and then try to change or modify that process with limited amounts of success. Why such thoughts arise may be of interest, but knowing the answer is not always necessary to overcome them.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : Anxiété compétitive, Performance, Régulation, Théories cognitives

Keywords : Cognitive theories, Competition, Performance anxiety, Regulation




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