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Archives of cardiovascular diseases
Volume 106, n° 11
pages 612-623 (novembre 2013)
Doi : 10.1016/j.acvd.2013.07.001
Received : 27 May 2013 ;  accepted : 16 July 2013
An overview of cardiac morphogenesis
Une anthologie du développement cardiaque normal
 

Figure 1




Figure 1 : 

The primitive linear heart tube (in red) at the ventral part of the embryo.


Figure 2




Figure 2 : 

The three main steps of cardiac development: early looping, convergence and wedging. Red circles: initial and final position of the future aortic valve. A: atria; AVC: atrioventricular canal; LV: left ventricle; OT: outflow tract; RV: right ventricle.


Figure 3




Figure 3 : 

Normal cardiac looping. At day 23 of intrauterine life, the linear heart tube folds rightwards.


Figure 4




Figure 4 : 

The four transitional zones: sinus venosus; primary fold; AV canal; and outflow tract endocardial cushions. Red star: inner curvature of the heart.


Figure 5




Figure 5 : 

Atrial septation. A. The septum primum (in yellow) with its mesenchymal cap (in white) and the vestibular spine (in blue) leaving a space corresponding to the ostium primum. B. The ostium secundum appears by apoptosis at the upper part of the septum primum. C. The septum secundum (in brown) develops by invagination of the roof of the right atrium, to the right of the septum primum; closure of the ostium primum and the inlet septum by mesenchymatous structures (in white) coming from the septum primum, vestibular spine and anterosuperior AV endocardial cushion.


Figure 6




Figure 6 : 

Formation of the right atrioventricular junction. Red arrow: tricuspid gully. A: atria; AVC: atrioventricular canal; LV: left ventricle; OT: outflow tract; RV: right ventricle.

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