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Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Volume 142, n° S1
pages 1-12 (janvier 2015)
Doi : 10.1016/S0151-9638(15)30001-6
Cent à deux cents ans avant le microbiome…
Between 100 and 200 years before the microbiome…
 

B. Cribier
 Clinique dermatologique, hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, 1, place de l’Hôpital, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex, France 

Résumé

Avant l’ère du microbiote, nos ancêtres ont patiemment découvert, cultivé et décrit les agents pathogènes, notamment ceux induisant des dermatoses. Les ectoparasites étaient connus depuis la nuit des temps et sont déjà bien représentés dans les premiers ouvrages consacrés aux maladies cutanées, de la fin xviiie et de la première moitié du xixe. À partir des années 1840 débute la grande période de la microbiologie, avec la découverte des champignons, puis plus tard des bactéries, dont celles de la tuberculose et de la lèpre. Cet article montre les images qui ont accompagné cette révolution médicale, dans laquelle les dermatologues ont joué un rôle de premier plan. On voit donc souvent pour la première fois des dessins et photographies de ces parasites et micro-organismes dans les ouvrages de Willan, Rayer, Hardy, puis pour la microscopie de Simon, Leloir, Sabouraud, Unna et bien d’autres. Darier lui-même a cru voir des parasites dans la maladie qui porte son nom, baptisée alors « psorospermose folliculaire végétante ».

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Abstract

Before the era of microbiote, our ancestors patiently discovered, described and cultivated pathogens, including those responsible for dermatoses. The very well known ectoparasites were represented in the earliest books on cutaneous diseases at the end of XVIIIth century and the first half of the XIXth century. Fungi were discovered in the 1840s, rapidly followed by numerous bacteria, including those causing tuberculosis and lepra. This article is illustrated by images that often showed for the first time parasites and bacteria in books dedicated to cutaneous diseases. Engravings and photographs from the books of Willan, Rayer and Hardy show accurate images of pathogens. Microscopic images can also be found in the textbooks of Simon, Leloir, Sabouraud, Unna and many others. Darier himself believed that “Darier's disease” was due to a parasite, which explains why he named his disease “Vegetant follicular psorospermosis”.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : Histoire de la dermatologie, Sarcopte, Poux, Demodex, Champignons, Sabouraud

Keywords : History of Dermatology, Sarcoptes, Lice, Demodex, Fungi, Sabouraud




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