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Pratiques en nutrition
Volume 11, n° 41
pages 43-45 (janvier 2015)
Doi : 10.1016/j.pranut.2014.12.008
Microbiote intestinal, cholestérol et maladies cardiovasculaires
Gut microbiota, cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases
 

Philippe Gérard a, , b  : chercheur
a Institut Micalis, INRA, UMR1319, Équipe AMIPEM, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France 
b AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France 

Auteur correspondant.
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Le tube digestif héberge un écosystème microbien complexe et spécifique à chaque individu, appelé microbiote intestinal. Plusieurs études récentes ont mis en évidence une influence de ce microbiote sur les métabolismes glucidique et lipidique de son hôte. En particulier, certaines bactéries sont capables de métaboliser le cholestérol ou de convertir les acides biliaires, et ainsi d’influencer le taux de cholestérol sanguin. Ces données suggèrent que le microbiote intestinal a la faculté de moduler le développement de l’athérosclérose et des maladies cardiovasculaires et qu’il pourrait dans l’avenir constituer une nouvelle cible thérapeutique pour prévenir ou traiter ces pathologies.

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Summary

The digestive tract harbours a complex microbial ecosystem specific to each individual, called gut microbiota. Several recent studies have highlighted the influence of this microbiota on the glucidic and lipid metabolisms of its host. In particular, some bacteria are capable of metabolising cholesterol or converting bile acids, and thereby influencing the level of cholesterol in the blood. These studies suggest that gut microbiota is able to modulate the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases and that it could in the future constitute a new therapeutic target for preventing or treating these pathologies.

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Mots clés : athérosclérose, cholestérol, maladie cardiovasculaire, microbiote intestinal, prébiotique

Keywords : atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, gut microbiota, prebiotic




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