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Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Volume 142, n° 8-9
pages 519-522 (août 2015)
Doi : 10.1016/j.annder.2015.06.010
Thérapie cellulaire et ulcères de jambe : l’avenir ?
Cellular therapy and leg ulcers: Future approaches

P. Senet
 UF de dermatologie vasculaire, service de dermatologie, hôpital Tenon, 4, rue de la Chine, 75970 Paris cedex 20, France 


La prévalence des ulcères de jambe, dont la cause la plus fréquente est l’insuffisance veineuse, est élevée en Europe. Les traitements actuels sont peu satisfaisants, avec un délai de cicatrisation souvent long et un risque élevé de récidive. Dans les 15 dernières années, la meilleure compréhension des mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires impliqués dans les retards de cicatrisation a favorisé le développement de la thérapie cellulaire dans ce domaine. L’utilisation de kératinocytes ou de fibroblastes en culture, auto- ou allogéniques, n’a pas démontré d’intérêt en termes de délai de cicatrisation ou de taux de cicatrisation complète. Les substituts cutanés allogéniques sont pour l’instant peu nombreux, d’un coût élevé et insuffisamment évalués dans l’indication des ulcères de jambe. Les cellules souches adultes multipotentes mésenchymateuses sont capables d’accélérer la cicatrisation dans des modèles animaux de plaies et des essais dans les plaies chroniques chez l’homme sont attendus.

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The prevalence of leg ulcers, which are most commonly caused by venous insufficiency, is high in Europe. Current treatments are fairly unsatisfactory, with long healing times in many cases, as well as a high risk of relapse. Over the last 15 years, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms at work in delayed wound healing has contributed to the development of cellular therapy in this field. The use of keratinocytes or cultured fibroblasts, whether autogenic or allogenic, has been of little value in terms of either healing times or rates of complete healing. For the moment, there are very few allogenic skin substitutes available; they are expensive and have been insufficiently studied in the indication of leg ulcers. Pluripotent mesenchymal adult stem cells have proved capable of accelerating wound healing in animal models and their study in chronic wounds in humans is currently awaited.

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Mots clés : Cellules souches, Thérapie cellulaire, Ulcère de jambe

Keywords : Stem cells, Cellular therapy, Leg ulcers

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