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Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie
Sous presse. Epreuves corrigées par l'auteur. Disponible en ligne depuis le vendredi 10 janvier 2020
Doi : 10.1016/j.jfo.2019.11.003
Received : 29 October 2019 ;  accepted : 13 November 2019
In vivo Meibomian gland imaging techniques: A review of the literature

M. Robin a, b, , H. Liang a, b, c, C. Baudouin a, b, c, d, A. Labbé a, b, c, d
a Service d’ophtalmologie 3, Centre hospitalier national d’ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012, Paris, France 
b CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, IHU FOReSIGHT, Inserm-DGOS CIC 1423, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France 
c Sorbonne universités, Inserm, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France 
d Service d’Ophtalmologie, hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP–HP, université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 9, avenue Charles de-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France 

Corresponding author at: Service d’ophtalmologie 3, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France.Service d’ophtalmologie 3, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts28, rue de CharentonParis75012France

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) includes a group of complex disorders of the ocular surface. It represents one of the main etiologies of dry eye as well as one of the main reasons for patient visits to the ophthalmologist. Classic clinical tests (dry eye symptoms, tear film break-up time, evaluation of gland expressibility or Schirmer's testing) only provide an indirect assessment of the function of the Meibomian glands and the meibum. Various in vivo testing methods have therefore been developed to image the Meibomian glands, such as Meibography, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, or even in vivo confocal microscopy. Some are accessible in clinical practice, while others are limited to the realm of clinical research. All of these techniques aim to develop a direct structural analysis of the Meibomian glands so as to assist in the diagnosis of MGD as well as to better understand the pathophysiology of the Meibomian glands. This review of the literature hopes to provide an overview of the current imaging modalities and their role in the evaluation of the Meibomian glands and MGD.

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Keywords : Ocular surface, Meibomian glands, Meibography, Optical coherence tomography, In vivo confocal microscopy, Testing methods

© 2019  Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.