Iron chelator has previously demonstrated fungicidal effects. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of the iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DSX) against Cryptococcus.
Materials and methods
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of DFO and DSX, and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of DFO and DSX when combined with amphotericin B (AMB). Expression of cryptococcal CFT1, CFT2, and CIR1 genes was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Neither DFO nor DSX alone showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus strains. When combined with AMB, the MICs of DFO and DSX decreased from>200μg/mL to 6.25 or 12.5μg/mL. The MIC of AMB decreased one-fold dilution in most strains when combined with iron chelators. The FICI of DFO+AMB and DSX+AMB was 0.5 and 1, respectively. C. neoformans showed significant growth retardation when incubated with a combination of sub-MIC concentrations of AMB and DFO; whereas, C. gattii demonstrated lesser growth retardation in DFO+AMB. No cryptococcal growth retardation was observed when DSX was combined with AMB. When C. neoformans was grown in DFO, the CFT1, CFT2, and CIR1 proteins were expressed 1.7, 2.0, and 0.9 times, respectively. When C. neoformans was grown in DSX, the CFT1, CFT2, and CIR1 genes were expressed 0.5, 0.6, and 0.3 times, respectively.
Synergistic antifungal activity of combination DFO and AMB was observed in Cryptococcus. Relatively increased CFT1 and CFT2 expression may be associated with the effect of DFO that inhibits the growth of fungi.El texto completo de este artículo está disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Iron chelator, Antifungal agent, Synergism, Cryptococcosis