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Epidemiology, risk factors and antimicrobial profile of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC): A study among women in the central region of Saudi Arabia - 03/11/20

Doi : 10.1016/j.mycmed.2020.101049 
D. Venugopal a, , K. Husain b, S.A. Mustafa c, S. Sabeen b
a Medical Lab Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Al Dawasir, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
b Department of Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
c Wadi Al Dawasir General Hospital, Wadi Al Dawasir, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 

Corresponding author.
En prensa. Pruebas corregidas por el autor. Disponible en línea desde el Tuesday 03 November 2020
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Abstract

Background

Candida spp. is a fungal resident of the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract, reproductive mucosa and oral cavity. Hence, a majority of the healthy population may be prone to the most common fungal infection such as candidiasis that can be caused by any species of Candida. In women, vaginitis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) forms a significant part of urogenital infections with a high recurrence rate thus posing a public health issue worldwide.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VVC, its possible risk factors and the antifungal susceptibility of the species isolated from women attending a hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

Methods

Samples of high vaginal swabs (HVS) were obtained from 208 women aged 15–64 years with signs and symptoms of VVC. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud agar plates (SDA) and incubated at 30°C for 10 days. Candida spp. were initially identified using morphologic characteristics, wet mount, germ tube test and finally confirmed with Vitek 2.

Results

Among the samples, 34% were culture positive. Out of the positive samples, 68% were Candida albicans, followed by Ctropicalis (27%) and Cglabrata (2.7%). Majority of the Calbicans (16%) were observed in women between ages of 21–30 years. All the isolates were sensitive to the antifungals tested. Also, the presence of Candida spp. did not correlate to risk factors such as pregnancy, diabetes and use of antibiotics.

Conclusions

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was observed in the central region of Saudi Arabia with the predominant organism as Candida albicans.

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Keywords : Candida spp., Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Antifungals, Diabetes, Pregnancy


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