De nombreuses études montrent que le stress lié à l’école, tout comme les problèmes de santé y étant associés, ont fortement augmenté chez les adolescents et qu’ils impactent les performances scolaires (ex., Martin-Krumm et al., 2011 ; Oger et al., 2007). Il s’avère même que certains jeunes soient en souffrance à l’École. Dès lors, de ces problématiques émerge celle du burnout scolaire avec ses multiples conséquences déjà largement explorées dans le champ du travail. Elle peut a priori paraître surprenante pourtant, force est de constater que du collège à l’université, le parcours de l’enfant au jeune adulte est parsemé de périodes de stress l’engageant dans ce type d’épuisement. L’objectif de ce travail est de faire un bilan permettant de cerner les causes et les conséquences du phénomène, puis de recenser des travaux dont il a fait l’objet. Il permet enfin d’envisager des pistes de prise en compte de ce problème de santé publique.El texto completo de este artículo está disponible en PDF.
Numerous studies show that school-related stress, as well as stress-related health problems, have increased significantly among adolescents and that this in turn impacts school performance (e.g., Martin-Krumm, Oger, Sarrazin, & Pelayo, 2011; Oger, Martin-Krumm, & Sarrazin, 2007). It even turns out that some young people are suffering at school (e.g., Martin-Krumm, Fenouillet, Heutte, & Besanson, 2014). This institution may have its share of responsibility for the unease certain students experience, particularly with its exhausting rhythms and anxiety-provoking pressures. From these problems, emerges the issue of school burnout, with its many consequences, which have already been widely explored in the field of work in general and specifically in the field of teaching, but from the teachers’ perspective (e.g., Laugaa, Rascle, & Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2008). For learners, this issue may seem surprising at first, however, it is clear that from secondary school to university, young children and then young adults paths are riddled with episodes of stress leading to this type of burnout. Indeed, they have very long school days, work to do after class, and some have to prepare for exams and achieve goals in order to obtain certification. The challenge of this piece of work is first of all to take stock of the quality of life of pupils and students, in particular to show that they suffer from a lack of well-being in their respective contexts of evolution. Indeed, many figures attest to this. The various causes, which depend both on the school itself but also on the individual who is going through a delicate and anxiety-provoking period that can be adolescence, are set out. The possible consequences of this suffering are also highlighted. An assessment is then drawn up in order to identify the premises of the phenomenon of burnout at school and review the various studies that have been carried out on it. Tools to measure it, the study of its evolution over the course of a school year, the differences between boys and girls, the so-called “at-risk” people, its links with motivation, well-being, depression and suicidal ideation were presented. Finally, it seemed crucial to us to show the interest of taking into consideration this public health problem on the one hand, for and by the School System, but also for each of the students affected by this form of unhappiness. Avenues for consideration, such as social support but also specific school programs are presented, the objective being that they be more widely developed in order to cope with exhaustion.El texto completo de este artículo está disponible en PDF.
Mots clés : Burnout, École, élève, Adolescent
Keywords : Burnout, School institution, Student, Adolescent