Sleep is a naturally complex dynamic state governed by nervous and signaling systems. Sleep disorders are prevalent and challenging in medicine and psychology, involved in genetic or inherited elements and environmental factors. The determination of the molecular changes during sleep and in sleep disturbance is fundamental to the understanding, diagnosis and therapy as well as pharmaceutical development of sleep disorders. Genetic and environmental contributions to sleep timing and sleep structure by molecular processes provide important insights into sleep deprivation or disorders. In this review, molecular mechanisms during sleep and in sleep-wake transition are overviewed in immune systems, metabolic process and neuronal activity. Current research progress in genetics of sleep disorders is summarized and the therapy or treatment approaches are presented in psychological-behavioural therapy, sleep-assistance devices and medications to introduce the strategy of addressing various sleep disorders. Although the correlation of environmental conditions and genetic changes is still not completely revealed, some advances are already achieved that environmental factors or medications have impacts on gene traits or genes controlling sleep and sleep deprivation by molecular pathways.El texto completo de este artículo está disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Sleep disorders, Molecular pathways, Genetics of sleep, Psychological therapy, Pharmacotherapy