Studies of the spirometric profiles of narghile smokers are few, have some methodological limits (i.e. small sample size), and present contradictory conclusions.
(i) To determine the percentage of narghile smokers with obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and/or restrictive ventilatory defect (RVD) or static hyperinflation (SHI); (ii) to compare the chronological and estimated lung ages.
Population and methods
Inclusion criteria: men aged 20 to 60 years, narghile smokers (>1 narghile-year [NY]). Exclusion criteria: cigar or cigarette smokers and comorbidity. Narghile use quantification: NY and kg of cumulative tobacco use (1 NY=9.125kg of cumulative tobacco use).
Large airway obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD): forced expired volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). Small airway OVD: FVC more than LLN and decrease (less than LLN) of one or more peripheral flows. RVD: total lung capacity (TLC) less than LLN. SHI: residual volume (RV) more than upper limit of normal.
(Vmax 22 Series/6200 Autobox, SensorMedics, Yorba Linda, California, USA with measurement of functional residual capacity by nitrogen washout). Measurements were made according to international recommendations.
One hundred and ten narghile smokers were included (34±10 years; 1.76±0.07m; 84±14kg). Thirty-six percent of the subjects had SHI; 14% had small airway OVD; 14% had RVD, and 6% had large airway OVD. Estimated lung age was higher than chronological lung age (47±18 years vs. 34±10 years, P<0.05).
Narghile use accelerates lung ageing. This study provides the health authorities with valid arguments to fight this blight on society, which increasingly involves children and pregnant women.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Spirometry, Tobacco, Narghile, Deficit, Ageing