In the 90's, clinico pathological studies have considerably improved the diagnosis of specific and rare neurodegenerative diseases. After a training in Parkinsons’ disease in Paris, the author moved to French West Indies (Guadeloupe) and observed a high incidence of atypical parkinsonism with dementia, unresponsive to levodopa. Similar features were observed in Martinique. An environmental origin has been suspected with the exposure to toxins of annonaceae leaves and seeds. The candidate toxins are acetogenins acting as mitochondrial poison. This was demonstrated in neuronal cell cultures, and in animals. However, the agency for food security did not conclude that Annonaceae should not be used for herbal (medicinal) tea, even if the population is now aware about the possible risk of parkinsonism after exposure to annonaceae acetogenins.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.