The concept of damage control (DC) is based on a sequential therapeutic strategy that favors physiological restoration over anatomical repair in patients presenting acutely with hemorrhagic trauma. Initially described as damage control surgery (DCS) for war-wounded patients with abdominal penetrating hemorrhagic trauma, this concept is articulated in three steps: surgical control of lesions (hemostasis, sealing of intestinal spillage), physiological restoration, then surgery for definitive repair. This concept was quickly adapted for intensive care management under the name damage control resuscitation (DCR), which refers to the modalities of hospital resuscitation carried out in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhagic shock within the context of DCS. It is based mainly on specific hemodynamic resuscitation targets associated with early and aggressive hemostasis aimed at prevention or correction of the lethal triad of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulation disorders. Concomitant integration of resuscitation and surgery from the moment of admission has led to the concept of an integrated DCR-DCS approach, which enables initiation of hemostatic resuscitation upon arrival of the injured person, improving the patient's physiological status during surgery without delaying surgery. This concept of DC is constantly evolving; it stresses management of the injured person as early as possible, in order to initiate hemorrhage control and hemostatic resuscitation as soon as possible, evolving into a concept of remote DCR (RDCR), and also extended to diagnostic and therapeutic radiological management under the name of radiological DC (DCRad). DCS is applied only to the most seriously traumatized patients, or in situations of massive influx of injured persons, as its universal application could lead to a significant and unnecessary excess-morbidity to injured patients who could and should undergo definitive treatment from the outset. DCS, when correctly applied, significantly improves the survival rate of war-wounded.El texto completo de este artículo está disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Damage control, Damage control surgery, Damage control resuscitation, Remote damage control resuscitation, Traumatic hemorrhagic shock, Coagulopathy, Lethal triad
Vol 154 - N° S1P. S19-S29 - décembre 2017 Regresar al número
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