Trajectory of chronic and neuropathic pain, anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing after total knee replacement. Results of a prospective, single-center study at a mean follow-up of 7.5 years - 26/05/23
A considerable number of patients are not satisfied after total knee replacement (TKR) because of persistent pain. This pain can also be neuropathic in origin. Both types of pain have a large impact on function and quality of life. Furthermore, the trajectory of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing has rarely been studied after TKR surgery. The primary objective of this study was to define the trajectory of knee pain after primary TKR. The secondary objectives were to evaluate how neuropathic pain, anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing change over time.
This prospective, single-center study included patients who underwent primary TKR for primary osteoarthritis between July 2011 and December 2012. Personal data (age, sex, body mass index, knee history, operated side, surgical approach, type of implant, operative time, and rehabilitation course) and the responses to seven questionnaires (Numerical pain rating scale, DN4-interview for neuropathic pain, Oxford Knee Scale, Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Patient Catastrophizing Scale and Brief Pain Inventory) were determined preoperatively, at 6 months postoperative and at a mean follow-up of 7.5 years.
Preoperatively, 129 patients (35 men, 94 women) filled out all the questionnaires. Subsequently, 32 patients were excluded because of incomplete responses at 6 months postoperative, 6 were excluded because they had undergone revision surgery, 11 patients were lost to follow-up and 5 patients had died. In the end, 65 patients were available for analysis (50% of the initial cohort) who were 74 years old on average at inclusion. Between the preoperative period and 6 months postoperative, pain (p<0.001), function (p<0.001), anxiety symptoms (p<0.001) and catastrophizing (p<0.001) had improved. Depressive symptoms did not change (p=0.63). Between 6 months postoperative and the latest follow-up, none of the parameters changed further (p>0.05). Of the 65 patients analyzed, 21% had chronic pain of undefined origin at 6 months postoperative and 26% had chronic pain at the end of follow-up, with 50% also having neuropathic pain. Preoperatively, 40% of the 65 patients had neuropathic pain, 30% at 6 months (p=0.27) and 18% at 7.5 years after TKR (p=0.01).
The number of patients who have chronic pain after TKR is considerable, especially since knee pain stabilized at 6 months postoperative. Early detection is vital to prevent the pain from becoming chronic, which makes it more difficult to treat. Half the patients with persistent pain also had neuropathic pain, which should be detected before surgery so the patients can be referred to a specialized pain management center. The presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing is not a contraindication to TKR, but these patients should be referred to specialists for treatment before surgery.
Level of evidence
IV, prospective cohort study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : TKR, Persistent post-surgical pain, Neuropathic pain, Catastrophizing, Cohort study
Abbreviations : NP, NPRS, HAD, OKS, PCS, TKR, BPI
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