Neurovascular complications represent one of the most detrimental manifestations of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), affecting many patients since infancy. They include overt stroke, silent cerebral infarcts and neurocognitive disorders. In fact, neurodevelopment can be impaired in children resulting in cognitive dysfunction in adults with SCD. This review is meant to resume the most recent guidelines about the prevention of SCD neurovascular complications and to highlight the open challenges in their implementation. Transcranial Doppler, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Angiography and neurocognitive test are useful screening tools. Chronic transfusion regimen, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and neurocognitive rehabilitation find indications in the context of primary and secondary prevention of neurovascular complications of SCD. However, international guidelines are often difficult to bring into the real world due to the lack of appropriate instruments and trained personnel. Many challenges have still to be faced to guarantee the best possible neurocognitive function to each child affected by SCD.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Key words : Sickle cell disease, Paediatrics, Neurovascular complications, Screening, Prevention