Hormographiella aspergillata is a basidiomycete exceptionally involved in invasive fungal infections (IFI). We report a case of H. aspergillata pulmonary infection in a 30-year-old female in a context of pancytopenia and relapsed of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). She presented with fever, thoracic pain, left pleural effusion and pneumonia, diagnosed on chest X-ray and CT-scan. Direct examination of a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen performed on day (d) 10 was negative, while the culture was positive on d30. H. aspergillata was suspected, considering macroscopic and microscopic examination. Its identification was confirmed using Microflex® Bruker mass spectrometry and pan-fungal (PF)-PCR assay followed by DNA sequencing. After this initial diagnosis, the patient was monitored for 2.8 years. She was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and/or voriconazole until switching to isavuconazole on d298 due to side-effects. This antifungal treatment was maintained until d717 and then discontinued, the patient being considered as cured. Over this follow-up period, the patient was submitted to recurrent pulmonary sampling. Each time, cultures were negative, while PF – PCR assays and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of H. aspergillata. The present case-report is the 32nd observation of H. aspergillata invasive infection showing that this IFI is still infrequent. Fifteen have occurred in patients with AML, which appears as the most frequent underlying disease favoring this IFI. Six recent case-reports in addition to ours highlight PF-PCR assays and DNA sequencing as relevant diagnostic tools that must be included in routine diagnosis and monitoring of IFI, specifically those due to rare basidiomycetes.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Hormographiella aspergillata, Coprinopsis cinerea, Acute myeloid leukemia, Basidiomycete