Developing criteria for assessing patellofemoral kinematics is crucial to understand, evaluate, and monitor patellofemoral function. The objective of this study was to assess a sequential 3D analysis method based on biplanar radiographs, using an in vitro protocol.
Biplanar radiography combined with novel 3D reconstruction methods provides a reliable evaluation of patellofemoral function, without previous imaging.
Material and methods
Eight cadaver specimens were studied during knee flexion cycles from 0° to 60° induced by an in vitro simulator. The protocol was validated by investigating sequential and continuous motion using an optoelectronic system, evaluating measurement accuracy and reproducibility using metallic beads embedded in the patella, and comparing the 3D patellar geometry to computed tomography (CT) images.
The differences in position between the sequential and continuous kinematic analyses were less than 1mm and 1°. The protocol proved reliable for tracking several components of knee movements, including patellar translations, flexion, and tilt. In this analysis, uncertainty was less than 2mm for translations and less than 3° for rotations, except rotation in the coronal plane. For patellar tilt, uncertainty was 5°. Mean difference in geometry was 0.49mm.
Sequential analysis results are consistent with continuous kinematics. This analysis method provides patellar position parameters without requiring previous CT or magnetic resonance imaging. A clinical study may deserve consideration to identify patellofemoral kinematic profiles and position criteria in vivo.
Level of evidence
IV, experimental study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Patellofemoral, Kinematics, Biplanar x-rays, EOS, 3D, In vitro, Instability