Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) are known to be affected by various foot deformities. Despite the fact that some of these deformities have been reported in the literature, a more comprehensive description would be of benefit. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of known foot deformities in patients with DS and of other previously non-described foot anomalies in this population.
Subjects with DS have an increased prevalence of foot deformities compared to control subjects.
Fifty-five subjects with DS (age: 14.6±7.4 years) had undergone podiatric clinical and podoscopic examinations to study their main foot deformities and their footprints, respectively. The results of these examinations were compared to those of an age-matched asymptomatic control group of fifty-three subjects (age: 13.4±11.2 years).
Significantly more prevalent foot deformities were found in the DS group: hallux valgus (36.4%), syndactyly between the 2nd and 3rd toes (9.1%), grade II pes planus (39.1%) and grade III pes planus (30%). Moreover, joint laxity (43.6%) was significantly more prevalent in the DS group. Furthermore, the presence of an increased space between the 1st and 2nd toes in patients with DS and its prevalence (73.6%) were described for the first time. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the presence of joint laxity and flatfoot in only the control but not the DS group. Other foot deformities were found to be consistently more frequent in the DS population but not significantly higher than the control group.
Although subjects with DS had significantly greater joint laxity and BMI compared to the control group, neither of these factors was found to be related to the increased prevalence of flatfoot in DS patients.
Level of evidence
IV–retrospective study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Down syndrome, Foot, Deformities, Flatfoot, Joint laxity