Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder affecting around 75,000 individuals worldwide. It is a multi-system disease but the main morbidity and mortality is caused by chronic lung disease. Due to newborn screening, a multidisciplinary approach to care and intensive symptomatic treatment, the prognosis has dramatically improved over the last decades and there are currently more adults than children in many countries. However, CF is still a very severe disease with a current median age of life expectancy in the fourth decade of life. The disease is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene which encodes the CFTR protein, a protein kinase A-activated ATP-gated anion channel that regulates the transport of electrolytes such as chloride and bicarbonate. More than 2000 mutations have been reported, although not all of these have functional consequences. An enormous research effort and progress has been made in understanding the consequences of these mutations on the CFTR protein structure and function, and this has led to the approval of two new drug therapies that are able to bind to defective CFTR proteins and partially restore their function. They are mutation-specific therapies and available at present for specific mutations only. They are the first personalized medicine for CF with a possible disease-modifying effect. A pipeline of other compounds is under development with different mechanisms of action. It is foreseeable that new combinations of compounds will further improve the correction of CFTR function. Other strategies including premature stop codon read-through drugs, antisense oligonucleotides that correct the basic defect at the mRNA level or gene editing to restore the defective gene as well as gene therapy approaches are all in the pipeline. All these strategies are needed to develop disease-modifying therapies for all patients with CF.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.