The global range of motion of the arm is the result of a coordinated motion of the shoulder complex including glenohumeral (GH), scapulothoracic, sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints.
This study is a non-systematic review of kinematic patterns in degenerated shoulders. It is a based on our own research on the kinematics of the shoulder complex and clinical experience.
For patients with subacromial impingement syndrome without rotator-cuff tears, most kinematic studies showed a small superior humeral translation relative to the glenoid and decreased scapular lateral rotation and posterior tilt. These scapular kinematic modifications could decrease the subacromial space and favor rotator-cuff tendon injury. For patients with shoulder pain and restricted mobility, the studies showed a significant increase in scapular lateral rotation generally seen as a compensation mechanism of GH decreased range of motion. For patients with multidirectional GH instability, the studies found an antero-inferior decentering of the humeral head, decreased scapular lateral rotation and increased scapular internal rotation.
The clinical or instrumented assessment of the shoulder complex with a degenerative pathology must include the analysis of scapula-clavicle and trunk movements complementing the GH assessment. Depending on the individual clinical case, scapular dyskinesis could be the cause or the consequence of the shoulder degenerative pathology. For most degenerative shoulder pathologies, the rehabilitation program should take into account the whole shoulder complex and include first a scapular and trunk postural-correcting strategy, then scapulothoracic muscle rehabilitation (especially serratus anterior and trapezius inferior and medium parts) and finally neuromotor techniques to recover appropriate upper-limb kinematic schemas for daily and/or sports activities.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Shoulder, Kinematics, Scapula, Degenerative shoulders pathology, Subacromial impingement syndrome, Adhesive capsulitis, Osteoarthritis, Rehabilitation