Although several surgical treatments for patellar instability with patella alta have been reported, the clinical outcomes and optimal surgical procedures for patellar instability with patella alta in middle-aged patients are still controversial. We hypothesized that optimal surgical procedures for patellar instability with patella alta in middle-aged patients may induce good clinical outcomes with better patellofemoral geometry.
Materials and methods
Twelve middle-aged patients with a mean age of 44 years (range: 40–55 years), who presented with patellar instability and patella alta, were treated with a combination of several surgeries, such as medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, trochleoplasty, lateral release, and three-dimensional transfer of the tibial tuberosity, based on a surgical algorithm. Patellar position and clinical outcomes were evaluated postoperatively. The mean follow-up time was 41.5 months (range: 24–72 months).
Patellar position altered from 1.31 (1.21–1.53) preoperatively to 0.88 (0.69–1.06) postoperatively on the Caton-Deschamps Index (p<0.01). The tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance altered from 21.8mm (20.1–25.8mm) to 10.3mm (5.1–14.7mm), and patellar tilt ranged from 28.1° (21–40°) to 14.6° (5–28°), respectively (p<0.01). Clinical outcomes on the Lysholm and Kujala scales improved from 43.1 and 38.4 to 86.7 and 78.3, respectively, at final follow-up (p<0.01). Surgical treatment that included trochleoplasty resulted in better outcomes than other surgical combinations without trochleoplasty (p<0.05). Sulcus angle and postoperative patellar tilt improved more in those who underwent trochleoplasty than in those who did not (p<0.05).
Surgical treatment for patellar instability with patella alta in middle-aged patients resulted in improved clinical outcomes. In particular, a combination surgery including trochleoplasty resulted in the greatest improvement in case of severe trochlear dysplasia.
Level of evidence
IV. Retrospective case series study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Patellar instability, Patella alta, Middle age, Trochleoplasty