Orthopedic surgery is part of the therapeutic arsenal of neurogenic joint deformities.
Medico-surgical management and rehabilitation must be coordinated in the long term.
These combined treatments must be undertaken by specialized multidisciplinary teams.
Since ancient times, the aim of orthopedic surgery has been to correct limb and joint deformities, including those resulting from central nervous system lesions. Recent developments in the treatment of spasticity have led to changes in concepts and management strategies. The increase in life expectancy has increased the functional needs of patients. Orthopedic surgery, along with treatments for spasticity, improves the functional capacity of patients with neuro-orthopaedic disorders, improving their autonomy. In this paper, we describe key moments in the history of orthopedic surgery regarding the treatment of patients with central nervous system lesions, from poliomyelitis to stroke-related hemiplegia, from the limbs to the spine, and from contractures to heterotopic ossification. A synthesis of the current surgical techniques is then provided, and the importance of multidisciplinary evaluation and management is highlighted, along with indications for medical, rehabilitation and surgical treatments and their combinations. We explain why it is essential to consider patients’ expectations and to set achievable goals, particularly before surgery, which is by nature irreversible. More recently, specialized surgical teams have begun to favor the use of soft-tissue techniques over bony and joint procedures, except for spinal disorders. We highlight that orthopedic surgery is no longer the end-point of treatment. For example, lengthening a contractured muscle improves the balance around a joint, improving mobility and stability but may be only part of the problem. Further medical treatment and rehabilitation, or additional surgery, are often necessary to continue to improve the function of the limb. Despite the recognized effectiveness of orthopedic surgery for neuro-orthopedic disorders, few studies have formally evaluated them. Hence, there is a need for research to provide evidence to support orthopedic surgery for treating neuro-orthopedic disorders.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Orthopaedic surgery, Spasticity, Neurotimy, Neurectomy, Hyponeurotization, Tendon lengthening, Tendon transfer, Arthrodesis, Heterotopic ossification