The ACE2 is a multifunctional protein.
It plays important roles in regulation of renin-angiotensin and the kinin-kallikrein systems, and amyloid peptides.
The ACE2 also regulates transport of neutral amino acids and interacts with integrins.
The ACE2 is the main entry receptor for human coronavirus-NL63, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2.
Its proposed major role in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury needs to be further studied.
The recent emergence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic affecting millions of individuals has raised great concern throughout the world, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causative agent for COVID-19. The multifunctional protein angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is accepted as its primary target for entry into host cells. In its enzymatic function, ACE2, like its homologue ACE, regulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) critical for cardiovascular and renal homeostasis in mammals. Unlike ACE, however, ACE2 drives an alternative RAS pathway by degrading Ang-II and thus operates to balance RAS homeostasis in the context of hypertension, heart failure, and cardiovascular as well as renal complications of diabetes. Outside the RAS, ACE2 hydrolyzes key peptides, such as amyloid-β, apelin, and [des-Arg9]-bradykinin. In addition to its enzymatic functions, ACE2 is found to regulate intestinal amino acid homeostasis and the gut microbiome. Although the non-enzymatic function of ACE2 as the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 has been well established, the contribution of enzymatic functions of ACE2 to the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related lung injury has been a matter of debate. A complete understanding of this central enzyme may begin to explain the various symptoms and pathologies seen in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and may aid in the development of novel treatments for COVID-19.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : ACE2, Angiotensin II, ARDS, Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS