The accurate preoperative segmentation of the uterus and uterine fibroids from magnetic resonance images (MRI) is an essential step for diagnosis and real-time ultrasound guidance during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery. Conventional supervised methods are effective techniques for image segmentation. Recently, semi-supervised segmentation approaches have been reported in the literature. One popular technique for semi-supervised methods is to use pseudo-labels to artificially annotate unlabeled data. However, many existing pseudo-label generations rely on a fixed threshold used to generate a confidence map, regardless of the proportion of unlabeled and labeled data.
Materials and Methods
To address this issue, we propose a novel semi-supervised framework called Confidence-based Threshold Adaptation Network (CTANet) to improve the quality of pseudo-labels. Specifically, we propose an online pseudo-labels method to automatically adjust the threshold, producing high-confident unlabeled annotations and boosting segmentation accuracy. To further improve the network's generalization to fit the diversity of different patients, we design a novel mixup strategy by regularizing the network on each layer in the decoder part and introducing a consistency regularization loss between the outputs of two sub-networks in CTANet.
We compare our method with several state-of-the-art semi-supervised segmentation methods on the same uterine fibroids dataset containing 297 patients. The performance is evaluated by the Dice similarity coefficient, the precision, and the recall. The results show that our method outperforms other semi-supervised learning methods. Moreover, for the same training set, our method approaches the segmentation performance of a fully supervised U-Net (100% annotated data) but using 4 times less annotated data (25% annotated data, 75% unannotated data).
Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed semi-supervised approach. The proposed method can contribute to multi-class segmentation of uterine regions from MRI for HIFU treatment.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
We proposed a semi-supervised segmentation network, CTANet, to segment uterine regions from MR Images for HIFU Treatment. It consists of a Pretrained Segmentation Network (PSN) and a Fine Segmentation Network (FSN). The highlights of the network include 1) We adopted a Confidence-based Threshold Adaptation (CTA) module to generate the high-quality pseudo labels without offline selection; 2) The Hidden Mixup loss is used to improve the generalization performance of the model.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Generating high-confidence maps for pseudo-labels.
Improving the model at different ratios of annotated and unannotated data volumes.
Improving the generalization under different patient data distribution.
The first work focuses on the semi-supervised segmentation of the uterus.
Keywords : HIFU therapy, Semi-supervised segmentation, Threshold-adaptation, Uterine fibroids