The clinical and radiological presentations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis are pleomorphic, but a common and characteristic finding is an increased T2-weighted signal in the bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. We report here a case of post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis (PALE) syndrome that was possibly related to EBV infection. Six weeks after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, the patient developed confusion and anterograde amnesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and revealed bi-hippocampal and amygdala signal abnormalities. The technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (99mTc SPECT) imaging confirmed bilateral limbic structural involvement. The clinical, biological and radiological presentations were consistent with a diagnosis of EBV-induced PALE syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of PALE syndrome possibly related to EBV infection.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Epstein-Barr virus, Limbic encephalitis, MRI, Transplantation