Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related end-stage cirrhosis with/without hepatocellular carcinoma is the primary indication for liver transplantation in many countries. Unfortunately, HCV is not eliminated by transplantation and graft re-infection is the rule, resulting in HCV-related graft disease. The natural history of recurrent hepatitis is variable; overall, progression to cirrhosis occurs in 20–30% and allograft failure in 10% after 5–10 years from transplantation. The use of poor quality organs, particularly from old donors, has a significant negative impact on disease severity and transplant outcome. In contrast, antiviral therapy, particularly if it results in permanent eradication of the virus, is associated with improved histology, reduced rate of graft decompensation and enhanced outcome. Disease monitoring, through protocol liver biopsies and new non-invasive tools, is essential to select patients at need of antiviral therapy. Peginterferon with ribavirin, used similarly to what is done in the non-transplant setting, is currently the treatment of choice; sustained viral response is achieved in about 35% of cases. Side effects, particularly anemia, are extremely frequent and sometimes severe (rejection, de novo autoimmune hepatitis). Retransplantation (RT) is the last option for the small subset of patients with allograft failure due to HCV recurrence who fulfil minimum criteria based on RT survival models.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.