Vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are percutaneous techniques performed under radioscopic control. They were initially developed for tumoral and osteoporotic lesions; indications were later extended to traumatology for the treatment of pure compression fracture. They are an interesting alternative to conventional procedures, which are often very demanding. The benefit of these minimally invasive techniques has been demonstrated in terms of alleviation of pain, functional improvement and reduction in both morbidity and costs for society. The principle of kyphoplasty is to restore vertebral body anatomy gently and progressively by inflating balloons and then reinforcing the anterior column of the vertebra with cement. In vertebroplasty, cement is introduced directly under pressure, without prior balloon inflation. Both techniques can be associated to minimally invasive osteosynthesis in certain indications. In our own practice, we preferably use acrylic cement, for its biomechanical properties and resistance to compression stress. We use calcium phosphate cement in young patients, but only associated to percutaneous osteosynthesis due to the risk of secondary correction loss. The evolution of these techniques depends on improving personnel radioprotection and developing new systems of vertebral expansion.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Kyphoplasty, Vertebroplasty, Vertebral compression fractures, Polymethylmethacrylate, Percutaneous